The market for commercially available isothermal titration calorimeters continues to grow as new applications and methodologies are developed. Concomitantly the number of users (and abusers) increases dramatically, resulting in a steady increase in the number of publications in which isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) plays a role. In the present review, we will focus on areas where ITC is making a significant contribution and will highlight some interesting applications of the technique. This overview of papers published in 2004 also discusses current issues of interest in the development of ITC as a tool of choice in the determination of the thermodynamics of molecular recognition and interaction. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.