Twenty consecutive patients with breast cancer were evaluated following chemotherapy using MRI to assess the size of cancer residua and compare these data with subsequent histologic measurements of the viable tumor. This retrospective study also involved assessment of the preoperative size of the malignancy as determined by physical exam and x-ray mammogram. These values were later compared with the histology. The tumor size correlation coefficient between MRI and pathologic analysis was the highest, at 0.93. Physical exam and x-ray mammography (available for 17 patients) produced correlation coefficients of 0.72 and 0.63, respectively, compared to histologic measurement. The accuracy of MRI did not vary with the size of cancer residua. MRI is an accurate method for preoperative assessment of breast cancer residua following chemotherapy. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:868–875. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.