• Registration;
  • Sequence independent;
  • Robust;
  • Automatic;
  • Gradient matching;
  • Closest gradients


A robust, automatic volume registration algorithm based on intensity gradients is presented. This algorithm can successfully perform registrations under conditions of unrelated intervolume voxel intensities, significant object displacements, and/or significant amounts of missing data. It also allows the user to visualize the registration convergence, clearly illustrating any source of registration errors. This algorithm consists of a matching algorithm based on iteratively finding the correspondence of the closest voxels containing a high three-dimensional intensity gradient magnitude. This algorithm was tested by registering T2-weighted MR volumes that had undergone varying displacement transformations to simultaneously acquired proton-density volumes. These transformations involved rotations of up to 25° followed by translations of up to 25 mm along the axis of rotation. For all registrations, the mean registration error was less than one-fifth of a voxel and the mean registration time was less than 30 minutes. In conclusion, this algorithm is shown to be a powerful method of sequence-independent MR volume registration that is simple to both use and understand.