• 1
    Oppenheimer DR. The cervical cord in multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1978; 4: 151162.
  • 2
    Losseff NA, Webb SL, O'Riordan JI, et al. Spinal cord atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis. A new reproducible and sensitive MRI method with potential to monitor disease progression. Brain 1996; 119: 701708.
  • 3
    Filippi M, Campi A, Colombo B, et al. A spinal cord MRI study of benign and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 1996; 243: 502505.
  • 4
    Lycklama à Nijeholt GJ, van Walderveen MAA, Castelijns JA, et al. Brain and spinal cord abnormalities in multiple sclerosis. Correlations between MRI parameters, clinical subtypes and symptoms. Brain 1998; 121: 687697.
  • 5
    Stevenson VL, Leary SM, Losseff NA, et al. Spinal cord atrophy and disability in MS: a longitudinal study. Neurology 1998; 51: 234238.
  • 6
    Lin X, Tench CR, Turner B, Blumhardt LD, Constantinescu CS. Spinal cord atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis over four years: application of a reproducible automated technique in monitoring disease progression in a cohort of the interferon β-1a (Rebif) treatment trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 10901094.
  • 7
    Lin X, Blumhardt LD, Constantinescu CS. The relationship of brain and cervical cord volume to disability in clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis: a three-dimensional MRI study. Acta Neurol Scand 2003; 108: 401406.
  • 8
    Edwards SG, Gong QY, Lui C, et al. Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. Brain 1999; 122: 291301.
  • 9
    Narayanan S, Collins DL, Francis S, Arnold DL. Spinal cord cross-sectional area correlates with brain and intra-cranial volume. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of ISMRM, Toronto, Canada, 2003. Abstract 270.
  • 10
    Vaithianathar L, Tench CR, Morgan PS, Constantinescu CS. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spinal cord in multiple sclerosis. A quantitative T1 relaxation time mapping approach. J Neurol 2003; 56: 16281636.
  • 11
    Filippi M, Colombo B, Rovaris M, Pereira C, Martinelli V, Comi G. A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of the cervical cord in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging 1997; 7: 7880.
  • 12
    Liu C, Edwards S, Gong Q, Roberts N, Blumhardt LD. Three dimensional MRI estimates of brain and spinal cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66: 323330.
  • 13
    Rovaris M, Bozzali M, Santuccio G, et al. In vivo assessment of the brain and cervical cord pathology with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Brain 2001; 124: 25402549.
  • 14
    Brex PA, Leary SM, O'Riordan JI, et al. Measurement of spinal cord area in clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 70: 544547.
  • 15
    Kameyama T, Hashizume Y, Ando T, Takahashi A. Morphometry of the normal cadaveric spinal cord. Spine 1994; 19: 20772081.
  • 16
    Blatter DD, Bigler ED, Gale SD, et al. Quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MR: normative database spanning 5 decades of life. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995; 16: 241251.
  • 17
    Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology 1983; 33: 14441452.
  • 18
    Cutter GR, Baier ML, Rudick RA, et al. Development of a multiple sclerosis functional composite score as a clinical trial outcome measure. Brain 1999; 122: 871882.
  • 19
    Chard DT, Griffin CM, Parker GJ, Kapoor R, Thompson AJ, Miller DH. Brain atrophy in clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Brain 2002; 125: 327337.
  • 20
    Filippi M, Bozzali M, Horsfield MA, et al. A conventional and magnetization transfer MRI study of the cervical cord in patients with MS. Neurology 2000; 54: 207213.