Fat and water magnetic resonance imaging

Authors

  • Thorsten A. Bley MD,

    1. Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    2. Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
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  • Oliver Wieben PhD,

    1. Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
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  • Christopher J. François MD,

    1. Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
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  • Jean H. Brittain PhD,

    1. Global MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
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  • Scott B. Reeder MD, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    2. Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    4. Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    • 600 Highland Avenue, CSC E1/374, Madison, WI, 53792-3252

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Abstract

A wide variety of fat suppression and water–fat separation methods are used to suppress fat signal and improve visualization of abnormalities. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques for fat suppression and fat–water imaging including 1) chemically selective fat suppression pulses “FAT-SAT”; 2) spatial-spectral pulses (water excitation); 3) short inversion time (TI) inversion recovery (STIR) imaging; 4) chemical shift based water–fat separation methods; and finally 5) fat suppression and balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences. The basic physical background of these techniques including their specific advantages and disadvantages is given and related to clinical applications. This enables the reader to understand the reasons why some fat suppression methods work better than others in specific clinical settings. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:4–18. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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