Preliminary evidence of altered gray and white matter microstructural development in the frontal lobe of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study

Authors

  • Joseph A. Helpern PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Physiology & Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    3. Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    4. The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York, USA
    • Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Ave, 4th Fl., New York, NY 10016
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  • Vitria Adisetiyo MS,

    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Physiology & Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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  • Maria F. Falangola MD, PhD,

    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    2. The Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York, USA
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  • Caixia Hu MS,

    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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  • Adriana Di Martino MD,

    1. Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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  • Kathleen Williams MS,

    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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  • Francisco X. Castellanos MD,

    1. Child Study Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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  • Jens H. Jensen PhD

    1. Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Physiology & Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Helpern JA, Adisetiyo V, Falangola MF, et al. Preliminary evidence of altered gray and white matter microstructural development in the frontal lobe of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A diffusional kurtosis imaging study. J Magn Reson Imaging 2011;33:17–23 Volume 36, Issue 2, 508, Article first published online: 30 April 2012

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate non-Gaussian water diffusion using diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to assess age effects on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) microstructural changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing controls (TDC).

Materials and Methods

In this preliminary cross-sectional study, T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) and DKI images were acquired at 3T from TDC (n = 13) and adolescents with ADHD (n = 12). Regression analysis of the PFC region of interest (ROI) was conducted.

Results

TDC show a significant kurtosis increase of WM microstructural complexity from 12 to 18 years of age, particularly in the radial direction, whereas WM microstructure in ADHD is stagnant in both the axial and radial directions. In ADHD, GM microstructure also lacked a significant age-related increase in complexity as seen in TDC; only kurtosis measures were able to detect this difference.

Conclusion

These findings support the prevailing theory that ADHD is a disorder affecting frontostriatal WM. Our study is the first to directly quantify an aberrant age-related trajectory in ADHD within GM microstructure, suggesting that the assessment of non-Gaussian directional diffusion using DKI provides more sensitive and complementary information about tissue microstructural changes than conventional diffusion imaging methods. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011;33:17–23. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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