Non-contrast enhanced MR angiography: Established techniques



Until recently, time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast (PC) were the only non-contrast MR angiography (NC-MRA) techniques practically used in clinical. In the decade, NC-MRA have been gained a revival of an interest among the MR researchers and scientists, in part because of safety concerns related to the possible link between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). This article introduces other established NC-MRA techniques, such as ECG-gated partial Fourier fast spin echo (FSE) and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), both with and without arterial spin labeling. Then, the article focuses on two main applications: peripheral run-off and renal MRA. Recently, both applications have achieved remarkable advancements and have become a viable clinical option as an alternative to contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRA. In addition, developments on the horizon including whole body MRA applications and further advancement at 3 Tesla are discussed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012 © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.