4D flow MRI

Authors

  • Michael Markl PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    • Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 737 N. Michigan Ave. Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611
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  • Alex Frydrychowicz MD,

    1. Department of Radiology, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Germany
    2. Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Wisconsin, USA
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  • Sebastian Kozerke PhD,

    1. Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Mike Hope MD,

    1. University of California – San Francisco, California, USA
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  • Oliver Wieben PhD

    1. Department of Radiology, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Germany
    2. Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    3. Department of Biomechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Wisconsin, USA
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Abstract

Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of flow using phase contrast (PC) methods is accomplished using methods that resolve single-directional flow in two spatial dimensions (2D) of an individual slice. More recently, three-dimensional (3D) spatial encoding combined with three-directional velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI (here termed 4D flow MRI) has drawn increased attention. 4D flow MRI offers the ability to measure and to visualize the temporal evolution of complex blood flow patterns within an acquired 3D volume. Various methodological improvements permit the acquisition of 4D flow MRI data encompassing individual vascular structures and entire vascular territories such as the heart, the adjacent aorta, the carotid arteries, abdominal, or peripheral vessels within reasonable scan times. To subsequently analyze the flow data by quantitative means and visualization of complex, three-directional blood flow patterns, various tools have been proposed. This review intends to introduce currently used 4D flow MRI methods, including Cartesian and radial data acquisition, approaches for accelerated data acquisition, cardiac gating, and respiration control. Based on these developments, an overview is provided over the potential this new imaging technique has in different parts of the body from the head to the peripheral arteries. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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