The technique of MR elastography (MRE) has emerged as a useful modality for quantitatively imaging the mechanical properties of soft tissues in vivo. Recently, MRE has been introduced as a clinical tool for evaluating chronic liver disease, but many other potential applications are being explored. These applications include measuring tissue changes associated with diseases of the liver, breast, brain, heart, and skeletal muscle including both focal lesions (e.g., hepatic, breast, and brain tumors) and diffuse diseases (e.g., fibrosis and multiple sclerosis). The purpose of this review article is to summarize some of the recent developments of MRE and to highlight some emerging applications. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;36:757–774. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.