Molecular profiling and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of tissues can often result in complex spectra that are difficult to interpret without additional information about specific signals. This report describes increasing data dimensionality in IMS by combining two-dimensional separations at each spatial location on the basis of imaging ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS). Analyte ions are separated on the basis of both ion-neutral collision cross section and m/z, which provides rapid separation of isobaric, but structurally distinct ions. The advantages of imaging using ion mobility prior to MS analysis are demonstrated for profiling of human glioma and selective lipid imaging from rat brain. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.