In Japan, human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 52, and 58 are most commonly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). By contrast, HPV6 is primarily associated with genital warts. This study was designed to evaluate the association between IgG antibody responses to common HPVs and the risk of CIN development within a Japanese population. CIN cases (n = 141) and controls (n = 109) were tested for cervical HPV DNA and serum IgG antibodies to L1 capsids of HPV16, 52, 58, and 6. Seropositivity to HPV16, 52, and 58 L1 capsids was significantly higher in CIN cases than in controls: 27%, 21%, and 31% versus 16%, 11%, and 11%, respectively (P < 0.05). HPV6 L1 seropositivity was not significantly associated with CIN lesions (P = 0.11). Presence of viral DNA for either HPV16, 52, or 58 correlated with a significant antibody response against the homologous L1 capsids but not heterologous L1 capsids. Furthermore, seropositivity to multiple types of HPV16, 52, and 58 was more strongly associated with an increased risk of CIN development than seropositivity to a single type (P for trend <0.001). These findings indicate that IgG antibodies to L1 capsids of HPV16, 52, and 58 represent an increased risk of CIN development, with antibodies to multiple types being indicative of a further increase in risk. The presence of CIN lesions in women with seropositivity to multiple types suggests that viral exposure to a given type may not be protective against infections by other types and subsequent CIN development. J. Med. Virol. 69:441–446, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.