The increased incidence of a enterovirus infections observed in patients with type 1 diabetes preceding the development of the clinical disease could be partially explained by variation in the genes coding for enterovirus receptors. We carried out sequence analysis of the most common enterovirus receptor molecules in 21 diabetic children and 20 healthy adults. DNA was isolated from the leukocytes, and gene regions known to code for virus-recognizing domains in major enterovirus receptors were amplified and sequenced. Heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Ala 67 (GCG) → Thr (ACG), was detected in the poliovirus receptor gene in four individuals in the diabetes group, but not in the control group. However, serological studies could not confirm that this substitution would convey different susceptibility to poliovirus infection. A heterozygous SNP, Lys 29 (AAG) → Met (ATG), was found in the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (receptor for rhinoviruses and some coxsackie A viruses) in one individual in both groups. A silent SNP in the α2 integrin subunit gene (echovirus 1 receptor) was frequently found in both groups, a silent heterozygotic SNP in coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (coxsackie B virus receptor) gene was seen in one individual in the diabetes group, whereas no variation was found in the DAF (echovirus receptor) and β3 integrin subunit sequences (receptor for coxsackievirus A9) studied. In conclusion, both synonymous and nonsynonymous sequence variability of genes coding for enterovirus and rhinovirus receptors was shown to occur, but no pattern directly specific for type 1 diabetes was found. J. Med. Virol. 70:99–108, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.