The present study was designed to investigate how two chronically replicating viruses, TT virus (TTV) and TTV-like mini virus (TLMV), interact with host defence systems. Successive serum samples from three groups of subjects, undergoing modifications of their antiviral defence, were tested by real-time PCR to measure changes in viral titers, and by sequence analyses to indicate whether increases in viremia could be attributed to infection with an unfamiliar strain: 1) in patients receiving immunosuppressants subsequent to kidney transplantation, viral titers tended to increase; 2) in soldiers undergoing extreme training known to cause immunosuppression, insignificant increases in titers were observed; and 3) interferon treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus caused a temporary decrease in TTV and TLMV titers. Increases in viremia were associated only occasionally with the appearance of novel strains. The above results add to knowledge on how these viruses are influenced by the host. J. Med. Virol. 70:177–182, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.