• pyothorax-associated lymphoma;
  • Epstein-Barr virus;
  • real-time polymerase chain reaction;
  • tuberculosis;
  • radiotherapy


We treated a 73-year-old man who developed a pyothorax-associated pleural lymphoma after a 52-year history of tuberculous pleuritis. The lymphoma was classified histologically as a diffuse large, B-cell type. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified in the tumor by immunocytochemical and molecular methods. Chemotherapy both without and with the addition of rituximab was only minimally effective, but adding radiotherapy to chemotherapy reduced the tumor size, resulting in a partial remission. The EBV load measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction correlated well with the tumor size and the serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration. Monitoring the EBV load may be useful in the management of pyothorax-associated lymphoma. J. Med. Virol. 70:137–140, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.