• influenza;
  • vaccine;
  • attenuation


The clinical effects, nasal and serum antibody responses, and virus excretion of a live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant influenza B virus vaccine, R75, was evaluated in 43 seronegative healthy adults by a random double-blind study. Symptom responses were minimal and were not significantly different between vaccine and placebo groups. No fevers, abnormalities in physical examination or laboratory testing developed during 4 weeks of observation.

Among vaccinees, 10 (48%) developed serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies, 16 (76%) developed serum neutralization (N) antibodies and 4(19%) developed nasal N antibodies. The GMT responses from study day 0 to day 28 were 4.0 to 10.4 for serum HI, 1.8 to 9.8 for serum N, and 1.0 to 1.4 for nasal N. There were no significant titer changes in the placebo group. No virus excretion was detected.

Although there are some questions concerning the relationship of antibody levels to protection, the low antibody responses in this study are an indication that R75 is not sufficiently immunogenic.