A recombinant Norwalk virus (NV) protein enzyme immunoassay was used to study the age of acquisition of NV IgG in various populations. In London, England, there was little evidence of infection during the first 2 years of life. However, the prevalence of NV IgG rose steadily throughout the period that children attend school, reaching a peak of 70% in the group aged 11–16 years. High levels of maternal antibody were detected in infants aged <3 months. Comparison of the acquisition of antibodies to three strains of human calicivirus in Japanese children in northern Japan indicated that although the majority had experienced infection with strains Japan and UK1 by the age of 12 years, only 22% possessed antibodies to NV. In Australian aborigines NV infection occurs early in life; by the age of 6 years over 90% of children were seropositive. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.