The presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) was studied among hemophiliacs, blood donors, and hepatitis patients. Four of 296 (1.4%) hemophiliacs and 5 of 1, 275 (0.4%) donors were confirmed as positive for HEV antibodies (difference was not significant: P = 0.07). Parenteral transmission of HEV to hemophiliacs was thus rare or nonexistent. Seven of 187 hepatitis patients were found with HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM). Six persons fell ill shortly after arriving from HEV-endemic countries. The seventh patient, without a history of travel, represents a case of nontropical hepatitis E. Consequently, hepatitis E should be considered in patients suffering from acute non-ABC hepatitis, even in industrialized countries. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.