The presence and type of oncogenic papillomavirus (HPV) in classic warty/basaloid vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma was investigated using three techniques, that is, histology, in situ hybridization, and PCR–ELISA. HPV typing was performed using in situ hybridization and PCR–ELISA. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma proved completely negative for HPV by PCR–ELISA, in situ hybridization, and histologic examination, while in classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, a HPV positivity of 66.1% was found. HPV 16 was the predominant type, with HPV 35, 33, and 52 types found rarely and sometimes together with HPV 16. PCR–ELISA proved to be the most suitable method to detect and type mucosal oncogenic HPVs. The absolute absence of HPV DNA in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias and in keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma suggests a strong HPV-independent pathway of malignant progression to invasive carcinoma. J. Med. Virol. 77:102–106, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.