This study tested cervical and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-1 seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV−) women to determine any association between infections at both sites and the difference in prevalence of the HPV types infecting these women. Participants were 115 women referred to a colposcopy clinic after diagnosis of abnormal cervical cytology. The women showed low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) or high grade disease (CIN2/3) or no CIN based on colposcopy and histology. Typing of HPV in cervical and oral cells was by Roche linear array and included direct sequencing on selected oral samples. Cervical HPV prevalence was 86.5% and 97.1% in HIV− and HIV+ women respectively. With the exception of HPV-45, prominent in HIV+ women, the hierarchy of predominant types were similar in HIV− and HIV+ women. HPV-16 was most prevalent in both HIV+ (41.7%) and HIV− women (38.5%) with CIN2/3. Significantly more HIV+ women had multiple cervical (>1) infections than HIV− women (36.1% vs. 88.2%, P < 0.001) and more oral HPV infections (45.5% and 25% respectively; P = 0.04). The most prevalent oral HPV types were HPV-33, -11, and -72. The majority of women did not have concordant oral and cervical HPV types, reflecting possible independence of infection at the two sites. HIV immune suppression did not impact significantly on the predominant types of cervical HPV infection (except for HPV-45). HIV+ women had more multiple HPV infections and those with severe cervical disease a similar prevalence of HIV-16 but a lower HPV-18 prevalence than HIV− women. J. Med. Virol. 80:953–959, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.