• Bruix J, Sherman M. 2005. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 42: 12081236.
  • Chu CJ, Hussain M, Lok AS. 2002. Quantitative serum HBV DNA levels during different stages of chronic hepatitis B infection. Hepatology 36: 14081415.
  • Cross TJ, Rizzi P, Horner M, Jolly A, Hussain MJ, Smith HM, Vergani D, Harrison PM. 2008. The increasing prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in South London. J Med Virol 80: 277282.
  • Dienstag JL. 2008. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 359: 14861500.
  • Fattovich G, Bortolotti F, Donato F. 2008. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: Special emphasis on disease progression and prognostic factors. J Hepatol 48: 335352.
  • Gaeta GB, Stroffolini T, Chiaramonte M, Ascione T, Stornaiuolo G, Lobello S, Sagnelli E, Brunetto MR, Rizzetto M. 2000. Chronic hepatitis D: A vanishing disease? An Italian multicenter study. Hepatology 32: 824827.
  • Gaeta GB, Stornaiuolo G, Precone DF, Lobello S, Chiaramonte M, Stroffolini T, Colucci G, Rizzetto M. 2003. Epidemiological and clinical burden of chronic hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infection. A multicenter Italian study. J Hepatol 39: 10361041.
  • Gaiani S, Gramantieri L, Venturoli N, Piscaglia F, Siringo S, D'Errico A, Zironi G, Grigioni W, Bolondi L. 1997. What is the criterion for differentiating chronic hepatitis from compensated cirrhosis? A prospective study comparing ultrasonography and percutaneous liver biopsy. J Hepatol 27: 979985.
  • Giusti G, Galanti B, Gaeta GB, Sagnelli E, Piccinino F, Ruggiero G. 1991. Clinical presentation and natural history of chronic persistent hepatitis. A multicentre retrospective study on 1197 cases. Ital J Gastroenterol 23: 111118.
  • Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, Jen CL, You SL, Chen CJ, Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer in HBV (The REVEAL-HBV) Study Group. 2006. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology 130: 678686.
  • Lin SY, Chang ET, So SK. 2007. Why we should routinely screen Asian American adults for hepatitis B: A cross-sectional study of Asians in California. Hepatology 46: 10341040.
  • Locarnini S, Warner N. 2007. Major causes of antiviral drug resistance and implications for treatment of hepatitis B virus monoinfection and coinfection with HIV. Antivir Ther 12: 1523.
  • Moucari R, Asselah T, Cazals-Hatem D, Voitot H, Boyer N, Ripault MP, Sobesky R, Martinot-Peignoux M, Maylin S, Nicolas-Chanoine MH, Paradis V, Vidaud M, Valla D, Bedossa P, Marcellin P. 2008. Insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C: Association with genotypes 1 and 4, serum HCV RNA level, and liver fibrosis. Gastroenterology 134: 416423.
  • Pawlotsky JM, Dusheiko G, Hatzakis A, Lau D, Lau G, Liang TJ, Locarnini S, Martin P, Richman DD, Zoulim F. 2008. Virologic monitoring of hepatitis B virus therapy in clinical trials and practice: Recommendations for a standardized approach. Gastroenterology 134: 405415.
  • Rantala N, van de Laar MJ. 2008. Surveillance and epidemiology of hepatitis B and C in Europe. A review. Eur Surveill 13: 8.
  • [1°] Rapporto sugli immigrati in Italia. 2007. Ministero dell'Interno. Dicembre 2007. Available at
  • Rothman KJ, Greenland S. 1998. Modern epidemiology. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincot-Raven Publishers. pp 359434.
  • Stroffolini T. 2005. The changing pattern of hepatitis B virus over the past three decades in Italy. Dig Liver Dis 37: 622627.
  • Stroffolini T, Bianco E, Szklo A, Bernacchia R, Bove C, Colucci M, Coppola CR, D'Argenio P, Lopalco P, Parlato A, Ragni P, Simonetti A, Zotti C, Mele A. 2003. Factors affecting the compliance of the antenatal hepatitis B screening programme in Italy. Vaccine 21: 12461249.
  • Tsochatzis E, Papatheodoridis GV, Manesis EK, Chrysanthos N, Kafiri G, Archimandritis AJ. 2007. Hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B develops due to host metabolic factors: A comparative approach with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Dig Liver Dis 39: 936942.
  • Wedemeyer H, Heidrich B, Manns MP. 2007. Hepatitis D virus infection: Not a vanishing disease in Europe. Hepatology 45: 13311332.
  • Yen SL, Chiu TY, Lin YC, Lee YC, Lee LT, Huang KC. 2008. Obesity and hepatitis B infection are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in university freshmen. Int J Obes 32: 474480.
  • Zarski JP, Marcellin P, Leroy V, Trepo C, Samuel D, Ganne-Carrie N, Barange K, Canva V, Doffoel M, Cales P. 2006. Characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B in France: Predominant frequency of HBe antigen negative cases. J Hepatol 45: 355360.
  • Zarsky JP, Marcellin P, Cohard M, Lutz JM, Bouche C, Rais A, French Multicentre Group. 1994. Comparison of anti-HBe-positive and HBe-antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B in France. J Hepatol 20: 636.