Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major causative agent of chronic liver complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Individuals infected with HBV show a wide spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic carriers to HCC. TLR3 is part of the innate immune system that recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and provides early immune response to exogenous antigens. The genetic polymorphisms such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR3 could be considered as factors for the susceptibility to viral pathogens including HBV. Due to lack of knowledge on the role of TLR3 polymorphisms in HBV infection, this study investigated the distribution of nine SNPs in the TLR3 gene and its association with Saudi Arabian patients infected with HBV. A total of 707 patients and 600 uninfected controls were examined for different parameters including the nine SNPs (rs5743311, rs5743312, rs1879026, rs5743313, rs5743314, rs5743315, rs111611328, rs78726532 and a newly identified SNP located at position 184322913 of chr4). The association analysis confirmed that only one SNP, rs1879026 (G/T), showed a significant difference (P = 0.0480; OR = 0.809, 95% CI = 0.655–0.999) in the distribution between HBV carriers and uninfected controls. While, the rest of the SNPs showed no significant association with regards to HBV infection or in the progression to cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. Furthermore, haplotype analysis revealed that one haplotype GCGA (rs1879026, rs5743313, rs5743314, and rs5743315, respectively), was associated significantly with HBV infection in this population. These findings indicate that genetic variations in the TLR3 gene could affect the outcome of HBV infection among Saudis. J. Med. Virol. 84:1353–1359, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.