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Oral health profile in patients infected with HTLV-1: Clinical findings, proviral load, and molecular analysis from HTLV-1 in saliva

Authors

  • Liliane Lins,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Federal University of Bahia-UFBA School of Medicine, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Victor José Uchoa de Carvalho,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Filipe Ferreira de Almeida Rego,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Rochele Azevedo,

    1. National Institute of Science and Technology in Stem Cells and Cell Theraphy, University of São Paulo—USP School of Medicine, Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • Simone Kashima,

    1. National Institute of Science and Technology in Stem Cells and Cell Theraphy, University of São Paulo—USP School of Medicine, Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • Viviana Nilla Olavarria Gallazi,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Marcia Tosta Xavier,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Bernardo Galvão-Castro,

    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
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  • Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara

    Corresponding author
    1. Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    2. Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    • Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rua Waldemar Falcão 121, Candeal, Salvador, Bahia 40296-610, Brazil.
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  • This paper is a part of the Master Dissertations of V.J.U.C. and F.F.A.R.

  • Liliane Lins and Victor José Uchoa de Carvalho contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and has also been implicated in several disorders, including periodontal disease. The proviral load is an important biological marker for understanding HTLV-1 pathogenesis and elucidating whether or not the virus is related to the clinical manifestation of the disease. This study describes the oral health profile of HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients in order to investigate the association between the proviral load in saliva and the severity of the periodontal disease and to examine virus intra-host variations from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva cells. It is a cross-sectional analytical study of 90 individuals carried out from November 2006 to May 2008. Of the patients, 60 were HTLV-1 positive and 30 were negative. Individuals from the HTLV-1 positive and negative groups had similar mean age and social-economic status. Data were analyzed using two available statistical software packages, STATA 8.0 and SPSS 11.0 to conduct frequency analysis. Differences of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. HTLV-1 patients had poorer oral health status when compared to seronegative individuals. A weak positive correlation between blood and saliva proviral loads was observed. The mean values of proviral load in blood and saliva in patients with HAM/TSP was greater than those in HTLV-1 carriers. The HTLV-1 molecular analysis from PBMC and saliva specimens suggests that HTLV-1 in saliva is due to lymphocyte infiltration from peripheral blood. A direct relationship between the proviral load in saliva and oral manifestations was observed. J. Med. Virol. 84:1428–1436, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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