• small-scale wind turbines;
  • load-frequency control;
  • primary frequency control


The connection of small-scale embedded generation to the grid may influence the frequency and voltage stability of the power system. A load-frequency control technique for systems with high penetration of small-scale wind generation is proposed. The proposed controller has been successfully implemented and tested using PSCAD/EMTDC (PSCAD Power System Simulation, HVDC Research Centre, Manitoba, Canada). In this study, the impact of small-scale wind turbines on frequency stability of the system is studied in detail. This study shows that large penetration of small-scale wind turbines with load and frequency has a significant impact on the stability and security level of electrical network. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.