• FDTD methods;
  • high-order schemes;
  • absorbing boundary conditions;
  • perfectly-matched layers (PML);
  • electrically large problems


An integral equations-based perfectly matched layers (PML) implementation is presented for the highly phase-coherent FV24 finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The implementation allows including field values off the grid axes in the split-field PML formulation conserving in the process the continuity and phase coherency of the FV24 algorithm when modeling absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs). It also eliminates the need for cumbersome subgridded low-order FDTD subregions that until now were required to model PML ABCs within integral-based high-order FDTD simulations. The developed approach was numerically tested and found to match the PML behavior of the standard FDTD method at normal wave incidence on ABC boundaries and exceeds it at highly oblique wave incidence. This development serves to improve the capability and practicality of the computationally efficient FV24 algorithm when modeling electrically large structures in 3-D space. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.