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Keywords:

  • amyloid;
  • cyclooxygenase;
  • hypoxia;
  • interleukin-1β, presenilin βAPP;
  • cDNA array;
  • interleukin-1;
  • metallothionein-III;
  • metal regulatory factor-1;
  • neuroinflammation;
  • phospholipase A2;
  • transcription factors

Abstract

Alterations in transcription, RNA editing, translation, protein processing, and clearance are a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. To extend our initial study (Alzheimer Reports [2000] 3:161-167), RNA samples isolated from control and AD hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) were analyzed for 12633 gene and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression levels using DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 Genechips; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Hippocampal CA1 tissues were carefully selected from several hundred potential specimens obtained from domestic and international brain banks. To minimize the effects of individual differences in gene expression, RNA of high spectral quality (A260/280 ≥ 1.9) was pooled from CA1 of six control or six AD subjects. Results were compared as a group; individual gene expression patterns for the most-changed RNA message levels were also profiled. There were no significant differences in age, postmortem interval (mean ≤ 2.1 hr) nor tissue pH (range 6.6–6.9) between the two brain groups. AD tissues were derived from subjects clinically classified as CDR 2-3 (CERAD/NIA). Expression data were analyzed using GeneSpring (Silicon Genetics, Redwood City, CA) and Microarray Data Mining Tool (Affymetrix) software. Compared to controls and 354 background/alignment markers, AD brain showed a generalized depression in brain gene transcription, including decreases in RNA encoding transcription factors (TFs), neurotrophic factors, signaling elements involved in synaptic plasticity such as synaptophysin, metallothionein III, and metal regulatory factor-1. Three- or morefold increases in RNAs encoding DAXX, cPLA2, CDP5, NF-κBp52/p100, FAS, βAPP, DPP1, NFIL6, IL precursor, B94, HB15, COX-2, and CEX-1 signals were strikingly apparent. These data support the hypothesis of widespread transcriptional alterations, misregulation of RNAs involved in metal ion homeostasis, TF signaling deficits, decreases in neurotrophic support and activated apoptotic and neuroinflammatory signaling in moderately affected AD hippocampal CA1. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.