Thyroid hormones are critical for maturation of the central nervous system. In a previous study, we showed a change in the pattern of mature myelinated nerve fibers by 2′3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in developing hypothyroid animals, which suggests a possible role for thyroid hormones in myelin compaction. The classical myelin markers myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipidic protein (PLP) are expressed later in oligodendroglial development, when myelin sheath formation is in progress. A myelin constituent designated myelin-associated/oligodendrocytic basic protein (MOBP) has been identified and related to myelin compaction. We assessed the developmental sequence of appearance of CNPase, MBP, MOPB, and PLP proteins in cerebellum (Cb) and corpus callosum (cc) in an experimental hypothyroidism model. The appearance of both MOBP isoforms occurred at postnatal day (P)25 and P30 in cc and Cb, respectively, followed by an increase with age in the control group. However, all the MOBP isoforms were weakly detectable in both regions at P30 from the hypothyroid (H) group, and the higher molecular weight isoform remains decreased in cc, even at P90. The developmental pattern of expression of CNPase, MBP, and PLP proteins was also delayed in the H group. CNPase and MBP expression was recovered in cc and Cb, whereas PLP remained below control levels at P90 in cc. Our data show that the experimental hypothyroidism affects the developmental pattern of the oligodendrocytic/myelin markers. Furthermore, thyroid hormone may modulate specific genes, as demonstrated by permanent down-regulation of MOBP and PLP expression in adulthood. J. Neurosci. Res. 66:254–261, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.