To examine molecular mechanisms associated with schizophrenia this study measured expression of approximately 12,000 genes in the middle temporal gyrus from 12 subjects with schizophrenia and 14 matched normal controls. Among the most consistent changes in genes with robust expression were significant decreases in the expression of myelination-related genes MAG, PLLP (TM4SF11), PLP1, ERBB3 in subjects with schizophrenia. There was also altered expression of genes regulating neurodevelopment (TRAF4, Neurod1, histone deacetylase 3), a circadian pacemaker (PER1), and several other genes involved in regulation of chromatin function and signaling mechanisms. These findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in oligodendroglia and provide initial evidence suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and altered circadian rhythms in this disorder. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.