A. Iwanami and J. Yamane contributed equally to this work.
Establishment of graded spinal cord injury model in a nonhuman primate: The common marmoset
Article first published online: 16 MAR 2005
Copyright © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Journal of Neuroscience Research
Volume 80, Issue 2, pages 172–181, 15 April 2005
How to Cite
Iwanami, A., Yamane, J., Katoh, H., Nakamura, M., Momoshima, S., Ishii, H., Tanioka, Y., Tamaoki, N., Nomura, T., Toyama, Y. and Okano, H. (2005), Establishment of graded spinal cord injury model in a nonhuman primate: The common marmoset. J. Neurosci. Res., 80: 172–181. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20435
- Issue published online: 22 MAR 2005
- Article first published online: 16 MAR 2005
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 JAN 2005
- Manuscript Revised: 4 JAN 2005
- Manuscript Received: 30 NOV 2004
- Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture
- Human Frontier Science Program Organization
- Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST)
- General Insurance Association of Japan
- Keio University
- spinal cord injury;
- common marmoset;
- preclinical study;
- behavioral analyses
Most previous studies on spinal cord injury (SCI) have used rodent models. Direct extrapolation of the results obtained in rodents to clinical cases is difficult, however, because of neurofunctional and anatomic differences between rodents and primates. In the present study, the development of histopathologic changes and functional deficits were assessed quantitatively after mild, moderate, and severe spinal cord contusive injuries in common marmosets. Contusive SCI was induced by dropping one of three different weights (15, 17, or 20 g) at the C5 level from a height of 50 mm. Serial magnetic resonance images showed significant differences in the intramedullary T1 low signal and T2 high signal areas among the three groups. Quantitative histologic analyses revealed that the number of motor neurons, the myelinated areas, and the amounts of corticospinal tract fibers decreased significantly as the injury increased in severity. Motor functions were evaluated using the following tests: original behavioral scoring scale, measurements of spontaneous motor activity, bar grip test, and cage-climbing test. Significant differences in all test results were observed among the three groups. Spontaneous motor activities at 10 weeks after injury were closely correlated with the residual myelinated area at the lesion epicenter. The establishment of a reliable nonhuman primate model for SCI with objective functional evaluation methods should become an essential tool for future SCI treatment studies. Quantitative behavioral and histopathologic analyses enabled three distinct grades of injury severity (15-g, 17-g, and 20-g groups) to be characterized with heavier weights producing more serious injuries, and relatively constant behavioral and histopathologic outcomes. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.