The FE65s (FE65, FE65L1, and FE65L2) are a family of multidomain adaptor proteins that form multiprotein complexes with a range of functions. FE65 is brain-enriched, whereas FE65L1 and FE65L2 are more widely expressed. All three members contain a WW domain and two PTB domains. Through the PTB2 domain, they all interact with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) and can alter APP processing. After sequential proteolytic processing of membrane-bound APP and release of AICD to the cytoplasm, FE65 can translocate to the nucleus to participate in gene transcription events. This role is further mediated by interactions of FE65 PTB1 with the transcription factors CP2/LSF/LBP1 and Tip60 and the WW domain with the nucleosome assembly factor SET. However, FE65 target genes have not yet been confirmed. The FE65 PTB1 domain also interacts with two cell surface lipoproteins receptors, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and ApoEr2, forming trimeric complexes with APP. The FE55 WW domain also binds to mena, through which it functions in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell motility, and neuronal growth cone formation. While single knockout mice appear normal, double FE65−/−/FE65L1−/− mice have substantial neurodevelopmental defects. These include heterotopic neurons and axonal pathfinding defects, findings similar to findings in both Mena and triple APP:APLP1:APLP2 knockout mice and also lissencephalopathies in humans. Thus APPs, FE65s, and mena may act together in a developmental signalling pathway. This article reviews the known functions of the FE65 family and their role in APP function and Alzheimer's disease. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.