The patterns of hippocampal neuronal loss and rewiring of the dentate gyrus (DG) were studied in the mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). NeuN immunocytochemistry showed two patterns of neuronal damage, i.e., type 1 with partial loss of pyramidal neurons in CA3 area and type 2 with almost compete loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) demonstrated that, at different rostrocaudal segments of the hippocampus, associational and commissural connections in the DG changed differently between mice with type 1 vs. type 2 neuronal loss. Calretinin (CR)-immunopositive mossy cells in ventral hilus and its fibers in inner molecular layer of bilateral DG remained in mice with type 1 but almost disappeared in mice with type 2 neuronal loss, which was further supported by retrograde labeling with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) showing colocalization of CTB with CR in the ventral hilus of bilateral DG in mice with type 1 neuronal loss, which was lost in those with type 2 neuronal loss. Furthermore, the sprouted PHA-L-immunopositive en passant and terminal boutons from the DG were found in CA1 area to contact with surviving calbindin-, CR-, and parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons. The present study therefore suggests that different patterns of neuronal loss in CA3 area may be linked to different axon reorganizations in the DG. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.