Polylaminin (polyLM) is a flat biomimetic polymer of laminin capable of promoting axonal growth both in vitro and in vivo. It is assembled in a cell-free system when laminin 111 is incubated in acidic pH, whereas incubation in neutral buffer leads to the formation of bulky and irregular polymers (LM). In the present work, we compared the behaviors of cells isolated from the P1 rat retina on polyLM and LM. PolyLM induced cellular spreading and the outgrowth of neurites in contact with the substrate, whereas LM led to the formation of large clusters of cells, with neurites growing only inward. After 24 hr in culture, the number of cells on polyLM increased threefold, and this increase was inhibited by 60% in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89 and by 41% in the presence of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine chloride, whereas both inhibitors abolished neuritogenesis. Neither the cell number nor the outgrowth of neurites was affected by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 on polyLM. On the other hand, PD98059 was able to reduce the cell number on LM, whereas the other inhibitors were not. Immunostaining of P1 retina with an antilaminin antibody revealed that the protein was expressed not only at its inner surface but also within the neuroblast layer in close contact with individual cells. Our results indicate that, when provided in its active polymerized form, laminin can influence both neuritogenesis and proliferation of retinal cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.