• experience sampling methodology;
  • daily diary;
  • daily process research;
  • ecological momentary assessment;
  • multilevel research


Experience sampling methodology and daily diary (ESM/DD) research elicits repeated reports of immediate or very recent experiences from the same sample of people for several days or weeks. Experience sampling and diary methods were almost unheard of in organizational research 15 years ago, but the past decade has seen a rapid rise in their use. These methods are helpful in studying dynamic within-person processes involving affect, behavior, interpersonal interactions, work events, and other transient workplace phenomena over time. Assessing cross-level effects of traits or other stable features on within-person processes and reactivity is also possible with ESM/DD data. We provide an introduction to issues in designing and carrying out an ESM/DD study, including data collection choices and schedules, measures, technology, training and motivation of participants, and analysis of multilevel data. We offer best practice recommendations and refer readers to further resources for additional detail on conducting and analyzing ESM/DD research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.