• attribute–treatment interaction;
  • cross-cultural training;
  • orientation program;
  • perceived social self-efficacy;
  • longitudinal field experiment


Analyzing additional data from a longitudinal field experiment, the present research investigate whether pre-training perceived social self-efficacy (PSSE) may moderate cross-cultural training effectiveness. On the basis of the interactionist perspective, we hypothesized that sojourners with high pre-training PSSE would benefit more from a cross-cultural coping orientation program, called “Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress” (ROPES), than sojourners with low pre-training PSSE. As a result, the treatment effects (the ROPES program over the control program—a traditional cross-cultural orientation program) would be more positive for high-PSSE sojourners than for low-PSSE sojourners. Seventy-two incoming graduate students from East Asia entering a large US public university were randomly assigned to either a ROPES program or a control program, and were assessed pre-entry and multiple times post-entry. The results strongly supported our predictions, as the hypothesized PSSE × Treatment interactions were observed on a comprehensive set of training outcomes based on multisource data. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.