Etzioni's model of organizational involvement: A perspective for understanding commitment to organizations



There are two predominant views of organizational commitment: instrumental and affective. The purpose of the paper is to explore the extent to which an adapted version of Etzioni's macro organizational model of involvement may serve as a single model of both affective and instrumental perspectives of organizational commitment. Moral commitment and alienative commitment are treated as affective forms of organizational attachment, and calculative commitment is treated as an instrumental form of organizational attachment. The paper employs five samples for the investigation. It develops scales for measuring each of the three dimensions of commitment. The paper concludes that organizational commitment is multidimensional. It also concludes that employees report a mixture of commitment types. Evidence is offered in support of the affective character of moral and alienative commitment. Although the evidence is equivocal, there is support for the independence of the two dimensions of affective commitment: moral and alienative. Evidence is also offered for the differential association of the three dimensions of organizational commitment with related aspects of organizational behavior. The paper extends our understanding of organizational commitment by providing a place for both instrumental and affective forms of psychological attachment to organizations. It offers scales which may be used for future research, and it suggests research which may extend the adapted model in this paper as well as provide direction for practising managers.