We advance a framework for testing mediational relationships that traverse levels of analysis. We differentiate mediation that functions within levels, as well as different forms of meso-mediation that operate downward across levels of analysis. We discuss the preconditions and evidential basis for these meso-mediational type relationships. We then provide an empirical example that illustrates the different types of mediation and conclude with recommendations and extensions for studying more complex meso-mediational organizational phenomena. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.