This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Organizational Behavior on organizational behavior in the context of multinational organizations (MNOs). MNOs have distinctive organizational characteristics and operate in national settings that have distinctive institutional and cultural characteristics that together provide a unique context for organizational behavior. We present a taxonomy, which suggests that OB scholars who have done research in the MNO context have given it theoretical meaning in several ways. This context can influence the frequency of occurrence of OB variables, influence their functional relationships, or produce nuanced or unique constructs. The articles in the special issue highlight the OB implications of the conflicting identities that are particularly likely to be found when an organization's different structural components are closely linked to different cultural and formal institutions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.