The theory of core self-evaluation (CSE) has provided organizational scholars with a framework for describing disposition-based effects on work attitudes and behaviors. Although the CSE construct has been useful for predicting various phenomena, there are potential weaknesses concerning how it is conceptualized and used. We review limitations regarding CSE theory, its measurement, and specific traits, and provide recommendations for addressing them. Key recommendations include strengthening the theory underlying CSE, specifying CSE as an aggregate construct with causal indicators, representing CSE as a multidimensional construct rather than a scale score, and incorporating a trait that reflects approach motivation. Theoretical and empirical evidence that relate to our recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.