There is extensive research on employee attitudes regarding employers and unions, but these studies have underemphasized social and affective forces. Most studies also examine attitudes toward either the union or the employer without considering how these attitudes might relate to one another. The present study of faculty (N = 306) at a large public research university demonstrated that perceptions of union support were positively related to union participation and perceptions of administration support were negatively related to union participation. Subjective norms and general union attitudes were related to perceptions of union support, and subjective norms were related to perceived organizational support. Taken together, an individual's participation in a union recognition effort depends not only on union instrumentality, but also upon social relationships with the union and administration. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.