Drawing on gender role theory and tournament theory, we examined the effects of sex and organizational culture preferences on the incomes of MBA graduates over an 8-year period. We found that masculine culture preferences led to higher income 4 years after graduation and, in contrast to previous research, the effect was stronger for women. By 8 years after graduation, however, men's rate of income increase was significantly higher than women's, an effect that was mediated by hours worked per week. These findings clarify some of the conflicting results of previous research on the effects of gender roles on women's careers and suggest that a tournament-like aspect of careers may account for higher incomes in organizations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.