Replication of mini-plasmids derived from bacteriophage P1 and naturally existing plasmids F, R1, R6K and RK2 in otherwise isogenic relA+ and relA− Escherichia coli strains during amino acid starvation and limitation was investigated. Since it was previously demonstrated that inhibition of DNA synthesis or amplification of plasmid DNA may depend on the nature of deprived amino acid, we starved bacteria for five different amino acids. We found differential replication of all these plasmids but RK2 (which did not replicate at all in amino acid-starved bacteria) during the stringent and relaxed response. While in almost all cases plasmid DNA replication was inhibited during the stringent response irrespective of the nature of deprived amino acid, wild-type or copy-up mini-P1, mini-F and mini-R1 plasmids replicated in relA− bacteria depending on the kind of starvation. R6K-derived plasmids harbouring ori β and γ (but not those containing ori α, β and γ or only ori γ) were able to replicate in relA− bacteria starved for all tested amino acids. Possible explanations for the mechanisms of regulation of replication of plasmids derived from P1, F, R1, R6K and RK2 during amino acid starvation are discussed. Our results also indicate that, like in the case of some other replicons, appropriate amino acid starvation or limitation may be used as a method for efficient amplification of plasmids derived from P1, F, R1 and R6K.