SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson T, Caesar J, Gleason B, Kelin Tank A, Haylock M, Collins D, Trewin B, Rahimzadeh F, Tagipour A, Rupa Kumar K, Revadekar J, Griffiths G, Vincent L, Stephenson D, Burn J, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Taylor M, New M, Zhai P, Rusticucci M, Vazquez-Aguirre J. 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D05109, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006290.
  • Bell VA, Kay AL, Jones RG, Moore RJ. 2007. Development of a high resolution grid-based river flow model for use with regional climate model output. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences 11: 532549.
  • Bond NA, Overland JE, Spillane M, stabeno P. 2003. Recent shifts in the state of the North Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 2183, DOI:10.1029/2003GL018597.
  • Diem JE, Mote TL. 2005. Interepochal changes in summer precipitation in the southeastern United States: evidence of possible urban effects near Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of Applied Meteorology 44: 717730.
  • Ding YJ, Yang DQ, Ye BS, Wang NL. 2007. Effects of bias correction on precipitation trend over China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 112: D13116, DOI:/10.1029/2006JD007938.
  • Easterling DR, Karl T. 2000. Potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Midwestern United States. In Climate Change Impacts on the US: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, National Assessment Synthesis Team, US Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 167188. http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/nationalassessment/overview.htm.
  • Easterling DR, Wallis TWR, Lawrimore JH, Heim RR Jr. 2007. Effects of temperature and precipitation trends on U.S. drought. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L20709, DOI:10.1029/2007GL031541.
  • Easterling DR, Meehl GA, Parmesan C, Changnon SA, Karl TR, Mearns LO. 2000. Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289: 20682074.
  • Frei C, Schar C. 2001. Detection probability of trends in rare events: theory and application to heavy precipitation in the Alpine region. Journal of Climate 14: 15681584.
  • Groisman P, Easterling DR. 1994. Variability and trends of total precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada. Journal of Climate 7: 184205.
  • Groisman P, Legates D. 1994. The accuracy of United States precipitation data. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75: 215228.
  • Groisman PY, Knight RW. 2007. Prolonged dry episodes over the conterminous United States: New tendencies emerged during the last 40 years. Journal of Climate, (in press).
  • Groisman PY, Knight RW, Karl TR, Easterling DR, Sun B, Lawrimore JH. 2004. Contemporary change of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: trends derived from in situ observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 6485.
  • Groisman PY, Knight RW, Easterling DR, Karl TR, Hegerl GC, Razuvaev VN. 2005. Trends in intense precipitation in the climate record. Journal of Climate 18: 13261350.
  • Grover EK, Sousounis PJ. 2002. The influence of large-scale flow on fall precipitation systems in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of Climate 15: 19431956.
  • Gutowski WJ Jr, Kozak KA, Arritt RW, Christensen JH, Patton JC, Takle ES. 2007. A possible constraint on regional precipitation intensity changes under global warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology (in press).
  • Hare SR, Mantua NJ. 2000. Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Progress in Oceanography 47: 103145.
  • Hegerl GC, Zwiers FW, Stott PA, Kharin V. 2004. Detectability of anthropogenic changes in annual temperature and precipitation extremes. Journal of Climate 17: 36833700.
  • Karl T. 1978. Day of the week variations of photochemical pollutants in the St. Louis area. Atmospheric Environment 12: 16571667.
  • Karl TR, Knight RW. 1998. Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79: 231241.
  • Khalili M, Leconte R, Brissette F. 2007. Stochastic multisite generation of daily precipitation data using spatial autocorrelation. Journal of Hydrometeorology 8: 396412.
  • Kiktev D, Sexton DM, Alexander L, Folland C. 2003. Comparison of modeled and observed trends in indices of daily climate extremes. Journal of Climate 16: 35603571.
  • Klein Tank AMG, Konnen GP. 2003. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. Journal of Climate 16: 36653680.
  • Koster RD, Guo ZC, Dirmeyer PA, Bonan G, Chan E, Cox P, Davies H, Gordon CT, Kanae S, Kowalczyk E, Lawrence D, Liu P, Lu CH, Malyshev S, McAvaney B, Mitchell K, Mocko D, Oki T, Oleson KW, Pitman A, Sud YC, Taylor CM, Verseghy D, Vasic R, Xue YK, Yamada T. 2006. GLACE: the global land-atmosphere coupling experiment. Part I: overview. Science 305: 11381140.
  • Kunkel KE, Andsager K, Easterling DR. 1999. Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada. Journal of Climate 12: 25152527.
  • Kunkel KE, Easterling DR, Hubbard K, Redmond K, Andsager K, Kruk M, Spinar M. 2005. Quality control of pre-1948 cooperative observer network data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22: 16911705.
  • Kunkel KE, Andsager K, Conner G, Decker W, Hillaker H Jr, Naber Knox P, Nurnberger F, Rogers J, Scheeringa K, Wendland W, Zandlo J, Angel JR. 1998. An expanded digital daily database for climatic resources applications in the Midwestern United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79: 13571366.
  • Liang XZ, Pan JP, Zhu JH, Kunkel KE, Wang JXL, Dai AG. 2006. Regional climate model downscaling of the U.S. summer climate and future change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111: D10108, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006685.
  • Lunneborg CE. 2000. Data Analysis by Resampling—Concepts and Applications. Duxbury Press: Pacific Grove, CA.
  • Meehl GA, Tebaldi C, Teng H, Peterson TC. 2007. Current and future U.S. weather extremes and El Nino. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L20704, DOI:10.1029/2007GL031027.
  • Michaels PJ, Knappenberger PC, Frauenfeld OW, Davis RE. 2004. Trends in precipitation on the wettest days of the year across the contiguous USA. International Journal of Climatology 24: 18731882.
  • Milly PCD, Wetherald RT, Dunne KA, Delworth TL. 2002. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 415: 514517.
  • Moberg A, Jones PD. 2005. Trends in indices for extremes in daily temperature and precipitation in central and western Europe, 1901–99. International Journal of Climatology 24: 11491174.
  • Montroy DL, Richman MB, Lamb PJ. 1998. Observed nonlinearities of monthly teleconnections between tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies and central and eastern North American precipitation. Journal of Climate 11: 18121835.
  • Overland JE, Adams JM, Bond NA. 1999. Decadal variability of the Aleutian low and its relation to high-latitude circulation. Journal of Climate 12: 15421548.
  • Pan Z, Arritt RW, Takle ES, Gutowski WJ Jr, Anderson CJ, Segal M. 2004. Altered hydrologic feedback in a warming climate introduces a warming hole. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L17109, DOI:10.1029/2004GL020528.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Adegoke J, Beltran-Przekurat A, Hiemstra CA, Lin J, Nair US, Niyogi D, Nobis TE. 2007. An overview of regional land-use and land-cover impacts on rainfall. Tellus B 59(3): 587601.
  • Polderman NJ, Pryor SC. 2004. Linking synoptic-scale climate phenomena to lake-level variability in the Lake Michigan-Huron Basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research 30: 419434.
  • Power M. 1993. The statistical implications of autocorrelation for detection in environmental health assessment. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health 2: 197204.
  • Pujol N, Neppel L, Sabatier R. 2007. Regional tests for trend detection in maximum precipitation series in the French Mediterranean region. Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques 52: 956973.
  • Ross RJ, Elliott WP. 1996. Tropospheric water vapor climatology and trends over North America: 1973–93. Journal of Climate 9: 35613574.
  • Sen PK. 1968. Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall's tau. Journal of the American Statistical Association 63: 13791389.
  • Trenberth KE. 1990. Recent observed interdecadal climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 71: 988993.
  • Trenberth KE, Dai A, Rasmussen RM, Parsons DB. 2003. The changing character of precipitation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84: 12051217.
  • Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje P, Bojariu R, Easterling D, Klein Tank A, Parker D, Rahimzadeh F, Renwick JA, Rusticucci M, Soden B, Zhai P. 2007. Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, SolomonS, QinD, ManningM, ChenZ, MarquisM, AverytKB, TignorM, MillerHL (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 235336.
  • von Storch H. 1999. Misuses of statistical analysis in climate research. In Analysis of Climatic Variability: Application of Statistical Techniques, von StorchH, NavarraA (eds). Springer; 1126.
  • Wijngaard JB, Klein Tank AMG, Konnen GP. 2003. Homogeneity of 20th century European daily temperature and precipitation series. International Journal of Climatology 23: 679692.
  • Wilks DS. 1999. Interannual variability and extreme-value characteristics of several stochastic daily precipitation models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 93: 153169.
  • Wilson PS, Toumi R. 2005. A fundamental probability distribution for heavy rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L14812, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL022465.
  • Yang DQ, Kane D, Zhang ZP, Legates D, Goodison B. 2005. Bias corrections of long-term (1973–2004) daily precipitation data over the northern regions. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L19501, DOI:10.1029/2005GL024057.
  • Zolina O, Suimmer C, Kapala A, Gulev S. 2005. On the robustness of the estimates of centennial-scale variability in heavy precipitation from station data over Europe. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L14707, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL023231.
  • Zwiers FW, Kharin VV. 1998. Changes in the extremes of the climate simulated by CCCGCM2 under CO2 doubling. Journal of Climate 11: 22002222.