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Keywords:

  • climatic extremes;
  • climatic indices;
  • climate change;
  • extreme temperature;
  • extreme precipitation and Iran

Abstract

We examined extreme temperature and precipitation as indicative climatic variables to determine recent climatic changes over Iran. We present the results from 27 synoptic stations which have been quality controlled, tested for homogeneity and have less missing data. For each station, 27 indicative climatic indices recommended by the joint World Meteorological Organization CCL/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were calculated.

Marked negative trends for indices like frost days (FD), ice days (ID), cool days (TX10p), cool nights (TN10p) and diurnal temperature range (DTR) were found over most regions of Iran. Conversely, positive trends were found for summer days (SU25), warm days (TX90p) and tropical nights (TR20) over most regions of the country. For indices such as Cold Spell Duration Index (CSDI) and Warm Spell Duration Index (WSDI), both positive and negative trends were obtained.

We found negative trends in consecutive dry days (CDD) over most of the country. A negative trend was observed for about two-thirds of the country for annual total wet days precipitation (PRCPTOT). Positive trends in the Simple Daily Intensity Index (SDII) were found for the northern half of the country, and concurrently negative trends in total wet days for many places within the same region. We observed a negative trend in very wet days exceeding the 95th percentile (R95p) over the eastern and western regions, and a positive trend over the central region of the country, although a clear negative trend was observed for extremely wet days exceeding the 99th percentile (R99p) over most of the country. No similar trends in either the maximum 1-day precipitation (Rx1DAY) or maximum 5-day precipitation (Rx5DAY) were found over the country. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society