SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Benoit P. 1977. The start of the growing season in northern Nigeria. Agricultural Meteorology 18: 9199.
  • Camberlin P, Janicot S, Poccard I. 2001. Seasonality and atmospheric dynamics of the teleconnection between African rainfall and tropical sea-surface temperature: Atlantic vs. ENSO. International Journal of Climatology 21(8): 9731005.
  • Cook KH. 2000. The South Indian convergence zone and interannual rainfall variability over southern Africa. Journal of Climate 13(21): 37893804.
  • Cook KH. 2001. A Southern Hemisphere wave response to ENSO with implications for southern Africa precipitation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 58(15): 21462162.
  • Davy E, Mattei GF, Solomon SL. 1976. An evaluation of the climate of water resources for development of agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of West Africa. Special Environmental Report 9. World Meteorological Organistaion: Geneva, Switzerland, WMO-No 459.
  • Dodd DES, Jolliffe IT. 2001. Early detection of the start of the wet season in semiarid tropical climates of Western Africa. International Journal of Climatology 21(10): 12511262.
  • Fontaine B, Philippon N, Trzaska S, Roucou P. 2002. Spring to summer changes in the West African monsoon through NCEP/NCAR reanalyses (1968–1998). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D14): 101029101037 art. no. 4186.
  • Gallee H, Moufouma-Okia W, Bechtold P, Brasseur O, Dupays I, Marbaix P, Messager C, Ramel R, Lebel T. 2004. A high-resolution simulation of a West African rainy season using a regional climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 109(D5): D05108.1D05108.13.
  • Gissila T, Black E, Grimes DIF, Slingo JM. 2004. Seasonal forecasting of the Ethiopian summer rains. International Journal of Climatology 24(11): 13451358.
  • Goddard L, Graham NE. 1999. Importance of the Indian Ocean for simulating rainfall anomalies over eastern and southern Africa. Journal Of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 104(D16): 1909919116.
  • Hulme M. 1987. Secular changes in wet season structure in central Sudan. Journal of Arid Environments 13: 3146.
  • Hulme M, Doherty R, Ngara T. 2001. African climate change: 1900–2100. Climate Research 17(2): 145168.
  • Ingram KT, Roncoli MC, Kirshen PH. 2003. Opportunities and constraints for farmers of west Africa to use seasonal precipitation forecasts with Burkina Faso as a case study. Agricultural Systems 74(3): 331349.
  • Janicot S, Harzallah A, Fontaine B, Moron V. 1998. West African monsoon dynamics and eastern equatorial Atlantic and Pacific SST anomalies (1970-88). Journal of Climate 11(8): 18741882.
  • Landman WA, Mason SJ. 1999. Operational long-lead prediction of South African rainfall using canonical correlation analysis. International Journal of Climatology 19(10): 10731090.
  • Livezey RE, Chen WY. 1983. Statistical field significance and its determination by Monte Carlo techniques. Monthly Weather Review 111: 4659.
  • Nicholson SE, Entekhabi D. 1987. Rainfall variaibility in equatorial and southern Africa–relationships with seas-surface temperatures along the southwestern coast of Africa. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 26(5): 561578.
  • Ntale HK, Gan TY, Mwale D. 2003. Prediction of East African seasonal rainfall using simplex canonical correlation analysis. Journal of Climate 16(12): 21052112.
  • Ogallo LJ. 1988. Relationships between seasonal rainfall in east-Africa and the southern oscillation. Journal of Climatology 8(1): 3143.
  • Otterman J. 1974. Baring high-albedo soils by overgrazing- hypothesized desertification mechanism. Science 186(4163): 531533.
  • Reason CJC. 1999. Warm and cold events in the southeast Atlantic southwest Indian Ocean region and potential impacts on circulation and rainfall over southern Africa. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 69(1–2): 4965.
  • Rouault M, Florenchie P, Fauchereau N, Reason CJC. 2003. South East tropical Atlantic warm events and southern African rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters 30(5): CLI9.1CLI9.4.
  • Rowell DP. 2003. The impact of Mediterranean SSTs on the Sahelian rainfall season. Journal of Climate 16(5): 849862.
  • Semazzi FHM, Burns B, Lin NH, Schemm JK. 1996. A GCM study of the teleconnections between the continental climate of Africa and global sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate 9(10): 24802497.
  • Stern RD, Dennett MD, Dale IC. 1982. Analysing daily rainfall measurements to give agronomically useful results. I. Direct methods. Experimental Agriculture 18: 223236.
  • Tennant W. 1999. Numerical forecasting of monthly climate in southern Africa. International Journal of Climatology 19(12): 13191336.
  • Thiaw WM, Barnston AG, Kumar V. 1999. Predictions of African rainfall on the seasonal timescale. Journal Of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 104(D24): 3158931597.
  • Vizy EK, Cook KH. 2001. Mechanisms by which Gulf of Guinea and eastern North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies can influence African rainfall. Journal of Climate 14(5): 795821.
  • Ziervogel G, Calder R. 2003. Climate variability and rural livelihoods: assessing the impact of seasonal climate forecasts in Lesotho. Area 35(4): 403417.