Changes in means and extreme events of temperature and precipitation in the Asia-Pacific Network region, 1955–2007

Authors

  • Gwangyong Choi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, 45 Gisangcheong-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-720, Republic of Korea
    2. Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, 192-1, Hyoja-dong, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 200-701, Republic of Korea
    • Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, 192-1, Hyoja-dong, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 200-701, Republic of Korea.
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  • Dean Collins,

    1. National Climate Centre, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne 3001, Australia
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  • Guoyu Ren,

    1. Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Centre, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Beijing 100081, China
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  • Blair Trewin,

    1. National Climate Centre, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne 3001, Australia
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  • Marina Baldi,

    1. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., 269 Khyber Pass Rd, Newmarket, Auckland, New Zealand
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    • On leave from Institute of Biometeorology—CNR, Rome, Italy.

  • Yoshikazu Fukuda,

    1. Climate Prediction Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan
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  • Muhammad Afzaal,

    1. Research and Development Division, Pakistan Meteorological Department, Sector H-8/2, PO Box 1214, Islamabad, Pakistan
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  • Theeraluk Pianmana,

    1. Climatological Group, Meteorological Development Bureau, Thai Meteorological Department, 4353 Sukhumvit Road, Bangna, Bangkok 10260, Thailand
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  • Purevjav Gomboluudev,

    1. Forecast Research Laboratory, Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, National Agency for Meteorology, Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring, Juulchiny Gudamj-5, Ulaanbaatar-46, Mongolia
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  • Pham Thi Thanh Huong,

    1. Climate Change Research Division, Center for Meteorology and Climate, Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, 23/62 Nguyen Chi Thanh, Dong Da, Ha Noi, Vietnam
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  • Norlisam Lias,

    1. Kuching Regional Meteorological Office, Kuching International Airport 93667, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
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  • Won-Tae Kwon,

    1. Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, 45 Gisangcheong-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-720, Republic of Korea
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  • Kyung-On Boo,

    1. Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, 45 Gisangcheong-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-720, Republic of Korea
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  • Yu-Mi Cha,

    1. Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, 45 Gisangcheong-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-720, Republic of Korea
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  • Yaqing Zhou

    1. Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Centre, China Meteorological Administration, 46 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Beijing 100081, China
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Abstract

In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of changes in extreme events of temperature and precipitation at 143 weather stations in ten Asia-Pacific Network (APN) countries and their associations with changes in climate means are examined for the 1955–2007 period. Averaged over the APN region, annual frequency of cool nights (days) has decreased by 6.4 days/decade (3.3 days/decade), whereas the frequency of warm nights (days) has increased by 5.4 days/decade (3.9 days/decade). The change rates in the annual frequency of warm nights (days) over the last 20 years (1988–2007) have exceeded those over the full 1955–2007 period by a factor of 1.8 (3.4). Seasonally, the frequencies of summer warm nights and days are changing more rapidly per unit change in mean temperatures than the corresponding frequencies for cool nights and days. However, normalization of the extreme and mean series shows that the rate of changes in extreme temperature events are generally less than that of mean temperatures, except for winter cold nights which are changing as rapidly as the winter mean minimum temperature. These results indicate that there have been seasonally and diurnally asymmetric changes in extreme temperature events relative to recent increases in temperature means in the APN region.

There are no systematic, regional trends over the study period in total precipitation, or in the frequency and duration of extreme precipitation events. Statistically significant trends in extreme precipitation events are observed at fewer than 30% of all weather stations, with no spatially coherent pattern of change, whereas statistically significant changes in extreme temperature events have occurred at more than 70% of all weather stations, forming strongly coherent spatial patterns. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society

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