SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arnfield J. 2003. Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. International Journal of Climatology 23: 126.
  • Baldocchi D, Kelliher FM, Black TA, Jarvis PG. 2000. Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange. Global Change 6: 6983.
  • Baldocchi D. 2005. The role of biodiversity on the evaporation of forests. In Forest Diversity and Function: Temperate and Boreal Systems, vol. 176, Ecological Studies, Scherer-LorenzenM, Detlef SchulzeE (eds). Springer-Verlag: Berlin, pp 131148.
  • Betts R. 2000. Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal reforestation by decreases in surface albedo Eos Transactions: AGU 81(48):Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract B22C-07.
  • Betts RA, Falloon PD, Goldewijk KK, Ramankutty N. 2007. Biogeophysical effects of land use on climate: model simulations of radiative forcing and large-scale temperature change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142: 216233.
  • Bloomfield P. 1992. Trends in global temperature. Climate Change 21: 116.
  • Bonan GB. 1997. Effects of Land Use on the Climate of the United States. Climatic Change 37: 449486.
  • Bonan GB. 2008. Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320: 14441449.
  • Chagnon SA. 1992. Inadvertent weather modification in urban areas: lessons for global climate change. Bulletin of American Meteorology Society 73: 619627.
  • Chase TN, Pielke RA, Kittel TGF, Nemani RR, Running SW. 2000. Simulated impacts of historical land cover chnages on global climate in northern winter. Climate Dynamics 16: 93105.
  • Craigmile PF, Cuttorp P, Percival DB. 2004. Trend assessment in a long memory dependence model using the discrete wavelet transform. Environmetrics 15: 313335.
  • Christy JR, Norris WB, Redmond K, Gallo KP. 2006. Methodology and results of calculating central California surface temperature trends: Evidence of human-induced climate change? Journal of Climate 19: 548563.
  • Davison AC, Hinkley DV. 1997. Bootstrap Methods and their Application. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • EasterlingDR, KarlTR, MasonEH, HughesPY, BowmanDP, DanielsRC, BodenTA (eds). 1996. United States Historical Climatology Network (U.S. HCN) Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Data, ORNL/CDIAC-87, NDP-019/R3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Easterling DR, Horton B, Jones PD, Peterson TC, Karl TR, Parker DE, Salinger MJ, Razuvayev V, Plummer N, Jamason P, Folland CK. 1997. Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277: 364367.
  • Efron B, Tibshirani R. 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall: New York.
  • Feddema JJ, Oleson KW, Bonan GB, Mearns LO, Buja LE, Meehl GA, Washington WM. 2005. The importance of land-cover change in simulating future climates. Science 310: 16741678.
  • Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan GB, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK, Helkowski JH, Holloway T, Howard EA, Kucharik CJ, Monfreda C, Patz JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Snyder PK. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309: 570574.
  • Frauenfeld OW, Zhang T, Serreze MC. 2005. Climate change and variability using European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast analysis (ERA-40) temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: D02101. DOI: 10.1029/2004JD005230.
  • Gallo KP, Easterling DR, Peterson TC. 1996. The influence of land use/land cover on climatological values of the diurnal temperature range. Journal of Climate 9: 29412944.
  • Gallo KP, Owen TW, Easterling DR, Jamason PF. 1999. Temperature trends of the U.S. historical climatology network based on satellite-designated land use/land cover. Journal of Climate 12: 13441348.
  • Gibbard SG, Caldeira K, Bala G, Philips TJ, Wickett M. 2005. Climate effects of global land cover change. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L23705.
  • Gluhovsky A, Agee E. 2007. On the analysis of atmospheric and climatic time series. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46: 11251129.
  • Gluhovsky A, Zihlbauer M, Politis DN. 2005. Subsampling confidence intervals for parameters of atmospheric time series: block size choice and calibration. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 75: 381389.
  • Hale RC, Gallo KP, Owen TW, Loveland TR. 2006. Land use/land cover change effects on temperature trends at U.S. Climate Normals stations. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L11703. DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026358.
  • Hale RC, Gallo KP, Loveland TR. 2008. Influences of specific land use/land cover conversions on climatological normals of near-surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D14113. DOI: 10.1029/2007JD009548.
  • Hansen J, Ruedy R, Sato M, Imhoff M, Lawrence W, Easterling D, Peterson T, Karl T. 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 2394723963.
  • Hansen M, DeFries R, Townshend JRG, Sohlberg R. 2000. Global land cover classification at 1km resolution using a decision tree classifier. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 13311365.
  • Homer C, Dewitz J, Fry J, Coan M, Hossain N, Larson C, Herold N, McKerrow A, VanDriel JN, Wickham J. 2007. Completion of the 2001 National Land Cover database for the conterminous United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73: 337341.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001. In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, HoughtonJT, DingY, GriggsDJ, NoguerM, Van Der LindenPJ, DaiX, MaskellK, JohnsonCA (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York.
  • Joshi M, Shine K, Ponater M, Stuber N, Sausen R, Li ZX. 2003. A comparison of climate response to different radiative forcings in three general circulation models: towards an improved metric of climate change. Climate Dynamics 20: 843854.
  • Kallache M, Rust HW, Kropp J. 2005. Trend assessment: applications for hydrology and climate research. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 12: 201210.
  • Kalnay E, Cai M, Nunez M, Lim Y. 2008. Impacts of urbanization and land surface changes on climate trends. International Association for Urban Climate 27: 59.
  • Kalnay E, Cai M, Li H, Tobin J. 2006. Estimation of the impact of land-surface forcings on temperature trends in eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: 113 (Cite ID D06106).
  • Kalnay E, Cai M. 2003. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423: 528531.
  • Karl TR, Williams CN Jr, Young PJ, Wedland WM. 1986. A model to estimate the time of observation bias associated with monthly mean maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for the United States. Journal of Climate 25: 145160.
  • Karl TR, Diaz HF, Kukla G. 1988. Urbanization: its detection and effect in the United States climate record. Journal of Climate 1: 10991123.
  • Kobayashi K, Salam MU. 2000. Comparing simulated and measured values using mean squared deviation and its components. Agronomy Journal 92: 345352.
  • Kukla G, Gavin J, Karl TR. 1986. Urban warming. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 25: 12651270.
  • Lahiri SN. 2003. Resampling Methods for Dependent Data. Springer-Verlag: New York.
  • Lim YK, Cai M, Kalnay E, Zhou L. 2005. Observational evidence of sensitivity of surface climate changes to land types and urbanization. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L22712. DOI:10.1029/2005GL024267.
  • Lim Y, Cai M, Kalnay E, Zhou L. 2008. Impact of vegetation types on surface temperature change. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47: 411424.
  • Lean J, Rowntree PR. 1997. Understanding the sensitivity of a GCM simulation of Amazonian deforestation to the specification of vegetation and soil characteristics. Journal of Climate 10: 12161235.
  • Lobell DB, Bonfils C. 2008. The effect of irrigation on regional temperatures: a spatial and temporal analysis of trends in California, 1934–2002. Journal of Climate 21: 20642071.
  • Mahmood R, Foster SA, Keeling T, Hubbard KG, Carlson C, Leeper R. 2006. Impacts of irrigation on 20th-century temperatures in the Northern Great Plains. Global Planetary Change 54: 118.
  • McPherson RA, Stensrud DJ, Crawford KC. 2004. The impact of Oklahoma's wheat belt on the mesoscale environment. Monthly Weather Review 132: 405421.
  • Mesinger F, DiMego G, Kalnay E, Mitchell K, Shafran PC, Ebisuzaki W, Jovic D, Woollen J, Rogers E, Berbery EH, Ek MB, Fan Y, Grumbine R, Higgins W, Li H, Lin Y, Manikin G, Parrish D, Shi W. 2006. North American regional reanalysis: A long-term, consistent, high-resolution climate dataset for the North American domain, as a major improvement upon the earlier global reanalysis datasets in both resolution and accuracy. Bulletin of American Meteorology Society 87: 343360.
  • National Research Council (NRC). 2005. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties. Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate Change, Climate Research Committee, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC.
  • Nuñez MN, Ciapessoni HH, Rolla A, Kalnay E, Cai M. 2008. Impact of land use and precipitation changes on surface temperature trends in Argentina. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D06111. DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008638.
  • Peterson TC. 2003. Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: no difference found. Journal of Climate 16: 29412959.
  • Peterson TC, Gallo KP, Lawrimore J, Owen TW, Huang A, McKittrick DA. 1999. Global rural temperature trends. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 329332.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Marland G, Betts RA, Chase TN, Eastman JL, Niles JO, Niyogi D, Running S. 2002a. The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system—relevance to climate change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 360: 17051719.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Stohlgren T, Schell L, Parton W, Doesken N, Redmond K, Money J, McKee T, Kittel TGF. 2002b. Problems in evaluating regional and local trends in temperature: an example from eastern Colorado, USA. International Journal of Climatology 22: 421434.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Nielsen-Gammon J, Davey C, Angel J, Bliss O, Cai M, Doesken N, Fall S, Niyogi D, Gallo K, Hale R, Hubbard KG, Lin X, Li H, Raman S. 2007a. Documentation of uncertainties and biases associated with surface temperature measurement sites for climate change assessment. Bulletin of American Meteorology Society 88: 913928.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Davey C, Niyogi D, Fall S, Steinweg-Woods J, Hubbard K, Lin X, Cai M, Lim YK, Li H, Nielsen-Gammon J, Gallo K, Hale R, Mahmood R, McNider RT, Blanken P. 2007b. Unresolved issues with the assessment of multi-decadal global land surface temperature trends. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D24S08. DOI: 10.1029/2006JD008229.
  • Pielke RA Sr, Davey C, Morgan J. 2004. Assessing “global warming” with surface heat content. Eos Transactions: AGU 85: 210211.
  • Politis DN, Romano JP, Wolf M. 1999. Subsampling. Springer: New York.
  • Quayle RG, Easterling DR, Karl TR, Hughes RY. 1991. Effects of recent thermometer changes in the cooperative station network. Bulletin of American Meteorology Society 72: 17181724.
  • Roy SS, Mahmood R, Niyogi D, Lei M, Foster SA, Hubbard KG, Douglas E, Pielke RA Sr 2007. Impacts of the agricultural Green Revolution—induced land use changes on air temperatures in India. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D21108. DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008834.
  • Schenker N, Gentleman JF. 2001. On judging the significance of differences by examining the overlap between confidence intervals. American Statistician 55: 182186.
  • Sud YC, Yang R, Walker GK. 1996. Impact of in situ deforestation in Amazonia on the regional climate: a GCM simulation study. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 101: 70957110.
  • Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje P, Bojariu R, Easterling D, Tank AK, Parker D, Rahimzadeh F, Renwick JA, Rusticucci M, Soden B, Zhai P. 2007. Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, SolomonS, QinD, ManningM, ChenZ, MarquisM, AverytKB, TignorM, MillerHL (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York.
  • Vose RS, Williams CN, Peterson TC, Karl TR, Easterling DR. 2003. An evaluation of the time of observation bias adjustment in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 2046. DOI: 30:10.1029/2003GL018111.
  • Werth D, Avissar R. 2004. The regional evapotranspiration of the Amazon. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 100109.
  • Wichansky PS, Steyaert LT, Walko RL, Weaver CP. 2008. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: part I: land cover and surface energy budget changes. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D10107. DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008514.
  • Wilcox RR. 2003. Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques. Academic Press: San Diego.
  • Williams PD. 2005. Modelling climate change: the role of unresolved processes. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A 363: 29312946.
  • Zhou L, Dickinson RE, Tian Y, Fang J, Li Q, Kaufman RK, Tucker CJ, Myneni RB. 2004. Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 95409544.
  • Zwiers FW. 1990. The effect of serial correlations on statistical inferences made with resampling procedures. Journal of Climate 3: 14521461.