SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, Caesar J, Gleason B, Klein Tank AMG, Haylock M, Collins D, Trewin B, Rahimzadeh F, Tagipour A, Rupa Kumar K, Revadekar J, Griffiths G, Vincent L, Stephenson DB, Burn J, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Taylor M, New M, Zhai P, Rusticucci M, Vazquez-Aguirre JL. 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111(D5):DOI:10.1029/2005JD006290.
  • Almeida RAF, Nobre P, Haarsma RJ, Campos EJD. 2007. Negative ocean-atmosphere feedback in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Geophysics Research Letters 34: L18809, DOI:10.1029/2007GL030401.
  • Ambrizzi T, Souza EB, Pulwarty RS. 2004. The Hadley and Walker regional circulation and associated ENSO impacts on South American seasonal rainfall. The Hadley Circulation: Present, Past and Future. Diaz HF, Bradley RS (eds) Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, 203235.
  • Berbery EH, Collini EA. 2000. Springtime precipitation and water vapor flux over Southeastern South America. Monthly Weather Review 128: 13281346.
  • Berbery EH, Barros V. 2002. The hydrological cycle of the La Plata Basin in South America. Journal of Hydrometrology 3: 630645.
  • Berbery EH, Silva Dias MA, Baethgen W, Barros V, Collischonn W, Failache N, Lettenmaier D, Marengo J, Menendez A, Monte Domecq R, Moraes O, Morales C, Paruelo J, Seluchi M, Silva Dias P, Terra R, Ereño C, Meitín J, Coutinho H, Dias NL, Jobbágy E, Rocha H, Vera CS, Williams S. 2005. La Plata Basin (LPB) Continental Scale Experiment—Implementation Plan. Available from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/lpb/.
  • Betts R, Cox PM, Collins M, Arris PP, Huntingford C, Jones CD. 2004. The role of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonian precipitation decrease and forest die back under global climate warming. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78: 157166.
  • Betts RA, Malhi Y, Roberts JT. 2008. The future of the Amazon: new perspectives from climate, ecosystem and social sciences. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of the Royal Society of London, Series B 363: 17291735.
  • Bombardi RJ, Carvalho LMV. 2009. IPCC Global coupled climate model simulations of the South America Monsoon System. Climate Dynamics 33: 893916, DOI:10.1007/s00382-008-0488-1.
  • Bombardi RJ, Carvalho LMV. 2010. The South Atlantic dipole and variations in the characteristics of the South American Monsoon in the WCRP-CMIP3 multimodel simulations. Climate Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0836-9.
  • Boulanger JP, Martinez F, Segura EC. 2007. Projection of future climate change conditions using IPCC simulations, neural networks and Bayesian statistics. Part 2: Precipitation mean state and seasonal cycle in South America. Climate Dynamics 28: 255271.
  • Carvalho LMV, Jones C, Liebmann B. 2002. Extreme precipitation events in Southeastern South America and large-scale convective patterns in South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Journal of Climate 15: 23772394.
  • Carvalho LMV, Jones C, Liebmann B. 2004. The South Atlantic Convergence Zone: intensity, form, persistence, relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity and extreme rainfall. Journal of Climate 17: 88108.
  • Carvalho L, Jones C, Silva AE, Liebmann B, Silva Dias P. 2010. The South American Monsoon System and the 1970s climate transition. International Journal of Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.2147.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Marengo JA, Satyamurty P, Nobre CA, Trosnikov I, Bonatti JP, Manzi AO, Tarasova T, Pezzi LP, D'Almeida C, Sampaio G, Castro CC, Sanches MB, Camargo H. 2002a. Global climatological features in a simulation using CPTEC/COLA AGCM. Journal of Climate 15: 29652988.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Sousa CA Kousky VE. 2002b. The Low Level Jet east of Andes in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and CPTEC/COLA simulations. Conference on South American Low Level Jet, Sta Cruz de la Sierra (www-cima.at.fcen.uba.ar/sallj/sallj_conf_extabs.html.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Herdies D. 2004. Data Assimilation Study using SALLJEX Data. CLIVAR Exchanges 9(1): 2326.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Kousky VE. 2004. Drought in Brazil during Summer and Fall 2001 and associated atmospheric circulation features. Revista Climanálise Ano 2(01):(http://climanalise.cptec.inpe.br/∼rclimanl/revista/pdf/criseing.pdf.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Camilloni I, Ambrizzi T. 2006. Escenarios Climaticos Regionales. Chapter 13 in El Cambio Climatico en la Cuenca del Plata. Barros V, Clarke R, Silva Dias P (eds). Buenos Aires, CONICET 2006. pp. 232.
  • Cavalcanti IFA, Cunningham CC. 2006. The wave four intraseasonal variability in extratropical S.H. and influences over South America. 8th Southern Hemisphere International Conference on Meteorology and Oceanography. Foz do Iguaçu.
  • Cavazos T, Gochis D, Marengo JA, Boulanger JP. 2008. VAMOS and anthropogenic climate change in the Americas. Report of the VAMOS ACC task force, pp. 24 http://www.clivar.org/organization/vamos/Publications/VAMOS_ACC_12Nov2008.pdf.
  • Cazes-Boezio G, Robertson A, Mechoso CR. 2003. Seasonal Dependence of ENSO Teleconnections over South America and Relationships with Precipitation in Uruguay. Journal of Climate 16: 11591176.
  • Cerne B, Vera CS. 2010. Influence of the intraseasonal variability on heat waves in subtropical South America. Climate Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0812-4.
  • Chase TN, Knaff JA, Pielke PA Sr, Kalnay E. 2003. Changes in global monsoon circulation since 1950. Natural Hazards 29: 229254.
  • Chaves RR, Nobre P. 2004. Interactions between sea surface temperature over the South Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(3):L0320410.1029/2003GL018647.
  • Chiessi C, Mulitza S, Pätzold J, Wefer G, Marengo JA. 2009. Impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on the South American summer 1 monsoon, Geopysical Research Letters 36: L21707, DOI: 10.1029/2009GL039914.
  • Ciffelli R, Petersen WA, Carey LD, Rutledge SA. 2002. Radar observations of kinematics, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM-LBA, Journal of Geophysical Research. 107:10.1029/JD000264.
  • Coe MT, Costa MH, Soares-Filho BS. 2009. The influence of historical and potential future deforestation on the stream flow of the Amazon River—Land surface processes and atmospheric feedbacks. Journal of Hydrology 369: 165174.
  • Collini EA, Berbery EH, Barros V, Pyle M. 2008. How Does Soil Moisture Influence the Early Stages of the South American Monsoon? Journal of Climate 21: 195213.
  • Cox P, Betts R, Collins M, Harris P, Huntingford C, Jones C. 2004. Amazonian forest dieback under climate-carbon cycle projections for the 21th century. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78: 137156.
  • Cox P, Harris P, Huntingford C, Betts R, Collins M, Jones C, Jupp T, Marengo J, Nobre C. 2008. Increasing risk of Amazonian Drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution. Nature 453: 212216.
  • Cunningham CC, Cavalcanti IFA. 2006. Intraseasonal modes of variability affecting the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. International Journal of Climatology 26(9): 11651180.
  • Da Rocha RP, Morales CA, Cuandra SV, Ambrizzi T. 2009. RegCM3 assessment over South America: Summer seasonal climatology and preciptation diurnal cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D10108, DOI: 10.1029/2008JD010212.
  • De Gonçalves LGG, Shuttleworth WJ, Burke EJ, Houser P, Toll DL, Rodell M, Arsenault K. 2006a. Toward a South America Land Data Assimilation System: Aspects of land surface model spin-up using the Simplified Simple Biosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D17110, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006297.
  • De Gonçalves LGG, Shuttleworth WJ, Nijssen B, Burke EJ, Marengo JA, Chou SC, Houser P, Toll DL. 2006b. Evaluation of model-derived and remotely sensed precipitation products for continental South America, Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D16113, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006276.
  • Doyle ME, Barros VR. 2002. Midsummer low-level circulation and precipitation in subtropical South America and related sea surface temperature anomalies in the South Atlantic. Journal of Climate 15: 33943410.
  • Drumond ARM, Ambrizzi T. 2005. The role of SST on the South American atmospheric circulation during the January, February and March 2001. Climate Dynamics 24: 781791.
  • Durkee JD, Mote TL. 2009. A climatology of warm-season mesoscale convective complexes in subtropical South America. International Journal of Climatology. Published online in Wiley InterScience, (www.interscience.wiley.com), DOI:10.1002/joc.1893.
  • Durkee JD, Mote TL, Shepherd M. 2009. The Contribution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes to Rainfall across Subtropical South America. Journal of Climate 22: 45904605.
  • Falvey M, Garreaud R. 2004. Variability of Moisture and Convection over the Central Andes during SALLJEX. CLIVAR Exchanges 29(9): 1113.
  • Ferraz SET, Grimm AM. 2004. Intraseasonal variability in Summer: modulation by the interdecadal variability. Proceedings of the 13th Brazilian Meteorological Congress, Fortaleza: Brazil, Brazilian Meteorological Society.
  • Freitas SR, Longo KM, Silva Dias MAF, Silva Dias PL, Chatfield R, Prins E, Artaxo P, Recuero F. 2004. Monitoring the transport of biomass burning emissions in South America. Environmental Fluid Mechanics 5(1): 135167, DOI:10.1007/s10652-005-0243-7.
  • Freitas SR, Longo KM, Silva Dias MAF, Chatfield R, Silva Dias P, Artaxo P, Andreae MO, Grell G, Rodrigues LF, Fazenda A, Panetta J. 2009. The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS). Part 1: Model description and evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (online) 9:pp. 28432861.
  • Fu R, Zhu B, Dickinson RE. 1999. How do atmosphere and land surface influence seasonal changes of convection in the tropical Amazon? Journal of Climate 12: 13061321.
  • Gan MA, Kousky VE, Ropelewski CF. 2004. The South America monsoon circulation and its relationship to rainfall over west-central Brazil. Journal of Climate 17: 4766.
  • Gan MA, Rao VB, Moscati MCL. 2006. South American monsoon indices. Atmospheric Science Letters 6: 219223.
  • Gan MA, Rodrigues LR, Rao VB. 2009. Monção na America do Sul. Chapter 19 in Tiempo y Clima no Brasil, Cavalcanti I, Ferreira NJ, Justi MAG, Silva Dias MAF, (eds) Editora. Oficina de Textos, São Paulo: Brazil, pp. 297312.
  • Garcia SR, Kayano MT. 2008. Some evidence on the relationship between the South American monsoon and the Atlantic ITCZ, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-009-0107-z.
  • Garcia SR, Kayano MT. 2009. Determination of the onset dates of the rainy season in central Amazon with equatorially antisymmetric outgoing longwave radiation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 97: 361372.
  • Garreaud RD. 1999. Multi scale analysis of the summertime precipitation over the Central Andes. Monthly Weather Review 127: 901921.
  • Gevaerd R, Freitas S. 2006. Estimativa operacional de umidade do solo para iniciação de modelos de previsão numérica da atmosfera. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia Volume Especial da LBA (www.cptec.inpe.br/brams/papers/soilmoisture_Gevaerd&Freitas_RBMET2006.pdf).
  • Gonzalez M, Vera C, Liebmann B, Marengo J, Kousky V, Allured D. 2007. The nature of the rainfall onset over central South America. Atmósfera 20(4): 379396.
  • Grimm A, Ferraz SET. 2002. Interdecadal variations of the relationship between ENSO and precipitation over Brazil. Proceedings of the 12th Brazilian Meteorological Congress, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, Brazilian Meteorological Society.
  • Grimm AM. 2003. The El Nino impact on the summer monsoon in Brazil: Regional processes versus remote influences. Journal of Climate 16: 263280.
  • Grimm AM. 2004. How do La Niña events disturb the summer monsoon system in Brazil? Climate Dynamics 22(2–3): 123138.
  • Grimm AM, Vera C, Mechoso R. 2005. The South American Monsoon System, Chang C-P, Wang B, Lau NC-G, (eds) The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, WMO/TD 1266—TMRP: pp. 542. Available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/tmrp/documents/global_monsoon_system_IWM3.pdf.
  • Grimm A, Natori A. 2006. Climate change and interannual variability of precipitation in South America. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L19706, DOI:10.1029/2006GL026821.
  • Grimm AM, Sahai AK, Ropelewski CF. 2006. Interdecadal Variations in AGCM Simulation Skills. Journal of Climate 19: 34063419.
  • Grimm A, Pal J, Giorgi F. 2007a. Connection between Spring Conditions and Peak Summer Monsoon Rainfall in South America: Role of Soil Moisture, Surface Temperature, and Topography in Eastern Brazil. Journal of Climate 20: 59295945.
  • Grimm AM, Zilli MT, Cavalcanti IF. 2007b. Do seasonal forecasts reproduce the link between early and peak monsoon rainfall in South America? CLIVAR Exchanges 12(4):pp. 1620.
  • Grimm A, Zilli MT. 2009. Interannual variability and seasonal evolution of summer monsoon in South America. Journal of Climate 22: 22572275.
  • Grimm AM, Tedeschi RG. 2009. ENSO and extreme rainfall events in South America. Journal of Climate 22: 15891609.
  • Grimm AM, Ambrizzi T. 2009. Teleconnections into South America from the tropics and extratropics on interannual and intraseasonal timescales. In: Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions: From the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Vimeux F, Sylvestre F, Khodri M, (eds). Springer: Netherlands, 159191, DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2672-9.
  • Grimm AM. 2010. Interannual climate variability in South America: impacts on seasonal precipitation, extreme events and possible effects of climate change. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, DOI: 10.1007/s00477-010-0420-1.
  • Grimm AM, Silva Dias MAF. 2010. Synoptic and Mesoscale Processes in the South American Monsoon. In The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, Chang CP, Ding Y, Johnson RH, Lau G, Wang B, Yasunari Y (eds.) World Scientific Publication Company: Singapore, 239255.
  • Haylock MR, Peterson T, Abreu de Sousa JR, Alves L, Ambrizzi T, Baez J, Barbosa de Brito J, Barros VR, Berlato MA, Bidegain M, Coronel G, Corradi V, Garcia T, Grimm AM, Jaildo dos Anjos R, Karoly D, Marengo JA, Marino MB, Meira PR, Miranda GC, Molion LCB, Muncunil D, Nechet D, Ontaneda G, Quintana J, Ramirez E, Rebello E, Rusticucci M, Santos JL, Varillas IT, Vincent L, Yumiko M. 2006. Trends in total and extreme South American rainfall 1960–2000 and links with sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate 19: 14901512.
  • Herdies DL, Kousky V, Ebisuzaki W. 2007. The Impact of High-Resolution SALLJEX Data on Global NCEP Analyses. Journal of Climate 20: 57655783.
  • Jones C, Schemm J. 2000. The Influence of Intraseasonal Variations on Medium- to Extended-Range Weather Forecasts over South America. Monthly Weather Review 128: 486494.
  • Jones C, de Carvalho LMV. 2002. Active and break phases in the South American Monsoon System. Journal of Climate 15: 905914.
  • Jones C, Waliser DE, Lau KM, Stern W. 2004. Global occurrences of extreme precipitation and the Madden-Julian oscillation: observations and predictability. Journal of Climate 17: 45754589.
  • Kim HJ, Wang B, Ding QH. 2008. The Global Monsoon Variability Simulated by CMIP3 Coupled Climate Models. Journal of Climate 21(20): 52715294.
  • Koster RD. 2004. Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. Science 305: 11381140.
  • Kousky VE. 1988. Pentad outgoing longwave radiation climatology for the South America sector. Revista Brasilera de Meteorología 3: 217231.
  • Kunkel KE, Bromorski PD, Brooks HE, Cavazos T. 2008. Observed changes in weather and climate extremes in Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate, Karl TR, Meehl GA, Miller CD, Hassol SJ, Waple AM, Murray WL, (eds). A Report of the U. S. Climate Change Science Program: Washington, DC.
  • Laing AG, Fritsch JM. 2000. The large-scale environments of the global populations of mesoscale convective complexes. Monthly Weather Review 128: 27562776.
  • Li W, Fu R. 2004. Transition of the large-scale atmospheric and land surface conditions from the dry to the wet season over Amazonia as diagnosed by the ECMWF Re-Analysis. Journal of Climate 17: 26372651.
  • Li W, Fu R, Negrón Juárez RN, Fernandes K. 2008. Observed change of the standardised precipitation index, its potential cause and implications to future climate change in the Amazon region. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 363: 17671772.
  • Liebmann B, Marengo J. 2001. Interannual variability of the rainy season and rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Journal of Climate 14: 43084318.
  • Liebmann B, Jones C, Carvalho LMV. 2001. Interannual variability of extreme precipitation events in the state of São Paulo. Brazilian Journal of Climate 14: 208218.
  • Liebmann B, Kiladis GN, Vera CS, Saulo AC, Carvalho LMV. 2004. Subseasonal variations of rainfall in South America in the vicinity of the low-level jet east of the Andes and comparison to those in the South Atlantic convergence zone. Journal of Climate 17: 38293842.
  • Liebmann B, Mechoso CR. 2010. The South American Monsoon System, Chapter 8 in The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, 2nd Edition. C. P Chang et al., (eds.) World Scientific Publishing: Singapore. 550 p.
  • Liu Y-Q, Fu R, Dickinson R. 2005. Smoke aerosols altering South 373 American monsoon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86(8): 10621063.
  • Malhi Y, Roberts JTR, Betts RA, Killeen TJ, Li W, Nobre CA. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science, 319: 169172, DOI:10.1126/science.1146961.
  • Malhi Y, Aragäo LEOC, Galbraith D, Huntingford C, Fisher R, Zelazowski P, Sitch S, McSweeney C, Meir P. 2009. Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest. PNAS 106(49):pp. 2061020615, DOI:10.1073/pnas.0804619106.
  • Marengo JA, Liebmann B, Kousky VE, Filizola NP, Wainer IC. 2001. Onset and end of the rainy season in the Brazilian Amazon basin. Journal of Climate 14: 833852.
  • Marengo JA. 2004. Interdecadal and long term rainfall variability in the Amazon basin. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78: 7996.
  • Marengo JA, Fisch G, Morales C, Vendrame I, Dias PC. 2004a. Diurnal variability of rainfall in Southwest Amazonia during the LBA-TRMM field campaign of the Austral summer of 1999. Acta Amazonica 34(4): 593603.
  • Marengo JA, Soares W, Saulo W, Nicolini M. 2004b. Climatology of the LLJ east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP reanalyses. Journal of Climate 17: 22612280.
  • Marengo JA, Nobre C, Tomasella J, Oyama M, Sampaio G, Camargo H, Alves L, Oliveira R. 2008. The drought of Amazonia in 2005. Journal of Climate 21: 495516.
  • Marengo JA, Jones R, Alves LM, Valverde MC. 2009a. Future change of temperature and precipitation extremes in South America as derived from the PRECIS regional climate modeling system. International Journal of Climatology 15: 22412255.
  • Marengo JA, Ambrizzi T, Rocha RP, Alves LM, Cuadra SV, Valverde MC, Ferraz SET, Torres RR, Santos DC. 2009b. Future change of climate in South America in the late XXI Century: Intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models, Climate Dynamics, Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-009-0721-6.
  • Marengo JA, Rusticucci M, Penalba O, Renom M. 2009c. An intercomparison of observed and simulated extreme rainfall and temperature events during the last half of the twentieth century: part 2: historical trends. Climatic Change, DOI:10.1007/s10584-009-9743-7.
  • Menon S, Hansen J, Nazarenko L, Luo Y. 2002. Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science 297: 22502253.
  • Misra V, Dirmeyer PA, Kirtman BP, Juang H-M, Kanamitsu M. 2002. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America. Journal of Geophysical Research 107: 8036, DOI:10.1029/2001JD900216.
  • Misra V. 2005. Simulation of the intraseasonal variance of the South American summer monsoon. Monthly Weather Review 133(3): 663676.
  • Misra V. 2008a. Coupled air, sea, and land interactions of the South American Monsoon. Journal of Climate 21: 63896403.
  • Misra V. 2008b. Coupled interactions of the monsoons. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L12705, DOI:10.1029/2008GL033562.
  • Misra V. 2009. The amplification of the ENSO forcing over Equatorial Amazon. Journal of Hydrometeorology 16: 15611568.
  • Muza MN, Carvalho LMV, Jones C, Liebmann B. 2009. Intraseasonal and Interannual variability of Extreme Dry and Wet Events over Southeastern South America and Subtropical Atlantic during the Austral Summer. Journal of Climate 22: 16821699.
  • Nesbitt SW, Zipser E. 2003. The diurnal cycle of rainfall and convective intensity according to three years of TRMM measurements. Journal of Climate 16: 14561475.
  • Nicolini M, Salio P, Ulke G, Marengo J, Douglas M, Paegle J, Zipser E. 2004. South American Low Level Jet Diurnal cycle and Three Dimensional Structure. CLIVAR-Exchanges 9: 68.
  • Nicolini M, Saulo AC. 2006. Modeled Chaco low-level jets and related precipitation patterns during the 1997–1998 warm season. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 94(1–4): 129143, DOI:10.1007/s00703-006-0186-7.
  • Nieto-Ferreira R, Rickenbach TM, Herdies DL, Carvalho LM. 2003. Variability of South American convective cloud systems and tropospheric circulation during January–March 1998 and 1999. Monthly Weather Review 131: 961973.
  • Nieto-Ferreira R, Rickenbach TM. 2011. Regionality of monsoon onset in South America, 2010: A three-stage conceptual model. International Journal of Climatology 31: 13091321, DOI:10.1002/joc.2161.
  • Nieto-Ferreira R, Rickenbach TM, Wright EW. 2011. The role of cold fronts in the onset of the monsoon season in the South Atlantic convergence zone. Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 137: 908922, DOI: 10.1002/qj.810.
  • Nobre P, Malagutti M, Urbano DF, de Almeida RAF, Giarolla E. 2009. Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change in a Coupled Model Simulation. Journal of Climate 22: 56865697.
  • Nobre CA, Borma LS. 2009. Tipping points' for the Amazon forest. Current Opinion in Environment Sustainability 1: 2836.
  • Nogués-Paegle J, Mo K. 1997. Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer. Monthly Weather Review 125: 279291.
  • Nogues-Paegle J, Mo K, Paegle J. 1998. Predictability of the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis model during austral summer. Monthly Weather Review 126: 31353152.
  • Nuñez MN, Solman SA, Cabré MF. 2008. Regional Climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate Change scenarios in the late twenty-first century. Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-008-0449-8.
  • Paegle JN, Mo KC. 2002. Linkages between summer rainfall variability over South America and sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate 15: 13891407.
  • Penalba OC, Robledo F. 2010. Spatial and temporal variability of the frequency of extreme daily rainfall regime in the La Plata Basin during the 20th century. Climatic Change 98(3): 531550.
  • Pitman AJ, de Noblet-Ducoudré N, Cruz FT, Davin EL, Bonan GB, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Delire C, Ganzeveld L, Gayler V, van den Hurk BJJM, Lawrence PJ, van der Molen MK, Müller C, Reick CH, Seneviratne SI, Strengers BJ, Voldoire A. 2009. Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: first results from the LUCID intercomparison study. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L14814, DOI:10.1029/2009GL039076.
  • Pscheidt I, Grimm AM. 2009. Frequency of extreme rainfall events in Southern Brazil modulated by interannual and interdecadal variability. International Journal of Climatology 29: 19882011.
  • Raia A, Cavalcanti IFA. 2008. The Life Cycle of the South American Monsoon System. Journal of Climate 21: 62276246.
  • Robertson AW, Mechoso CR. 2000. Interannual and interdecadal variability of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Monthly Weather Review 128: 29472957.
  • Robertson AW, Farrara JD, Mechoso CR. 2003. Simulations of the atmospheric response to South Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate 16: 25402551.
  • Rodriguez DA, Cavalcanti IFA. 2006. Simulations of the Hydrologic Cycle over Southern South America using the CPTEC/COLA AGCM. Journal of Hydrometeorology 7: 916936.
  • Ropelewski CF, Bell MA. 2008. Shifts in the statistics of daily rainfall in South America conditional on ENSO phase. Journal of Climate 21: 849865.
  • Rozante JR, Cavalcanti IFA. 2008. Regional Eta model experiments. SALLJEX and MCS developments. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D17106, DOI:10.1029/2007JD009566.
  • Rusticucci M, Marengo J, Penalba O, Renom M. 2009. An intercomparison of model-simulated in extreme rainfall and temperature events during the last half of the twentieth century. Part 1: mean values and variability. Climate Change, DOI:10.1007/s10584-009-9742-8.
  • Salazar LF, Nobre CA, Oyama MD. 2007. Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L09708.
  • Salio P, Nicolini M, Zipser EJ. 2007. Mesoscale convective systems over Southeastern South America and their relationship with the South American Low Level Jet. Monthly Weather Review 135: 12901309.
  • Sampaio G, Nobre CA, Costa MH, Satyamurty P, Soares-Filho BS, Cardoso M. 2007. Regional climate change over eastern Amazonia caused by pasture and soybean cropland expansion. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L17709, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030612.
  • Satyamurty P, de Castro AA, Tota J, Gularte LE, Manzi AO. 2009. Rainfall trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the past eight decades, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-009-0133-x.
  • Saulo AC, Nicolini M, Chou SC. 2000. Model characterization of the South American low-level flow during the 1997-98 spring-summer season. Climate Dynamics 16: 867881.
  • Saulo AC, Seluchi ME, Nicolini M. 2004. A Case Study of a Chaco Low-Level Jet Event. Monthly Weather Review 132: 26692683.
  • Saulo AC, Ferreira L, Nogués-Paegle J, Seluchi ME, Ruiz J. 2010. Land–Atmosphere Interactions during a Northwestern Argentina Low Event. Monthly Weather Review 138: 24812498, DOI:10.1175/2010MWR3227.1.
  • Seth A, Rauscher S, Camargo S, Qian J-H, Pal J. 2006. RegCM regional climatologies for South America using reanalysis and ECHAM model global driving fields. Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-006-0191-z.
  • Seth A, Rojas M, Rauscher S. 2010. CMIP3 projected changes in the annual cycle of the South American Monsoon Climatic Change 98: 331357.
  • Shiogama H, Watanabe M, Kimoto M, Nozawa T. 2005. Anthropogenic and natural forcing impacts on ENSO-like decadal variability during the second half of the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L21714, DOI:10.1029/2005GL023871.
  • Silva AE, Carvalho LMV. 2007. Large-scale index for South America Monsoon (LISAM). Atmospheric Science Letters 8: 5157.
  • Silva GAM, Ambrizzi T, Marengo JA. 2009. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability. Annales Geophysicae 27: 645657.
  • Silva VBS, Berbery EH. 2006. Intense rainfall events affecting the La Plata basin. Journal of Hydrometeorology 7: 769787.
  • Silva Dias MAF, Rutledge S, Kabat P, Silva Dias PL, Nobre CA, Fisch G, Dolman AJ, Zipser E, Garstang M, Manzi AO, Fuentes JD, da Rocha HR, Marengo JA, Plana-Fattori A, S'a LDA, Alval'a RCS, Andreae MO, Artaxo P, Gielow R, Gatti L. 2002. Cloud and rain processes in a biosphere-atmosphere interaction context in the Amazon Region. Journal of Geophysical Research 107:DOI:10.1029/2001JD000335.
  • Silvestri GE, Vera CS. 2003. Antarctic Oscillation signal on precipitation anomalies over southeastern South America. Geophysical Research Letters 30(21):DOI:10.1029/2003GL018277.
  • Silvestri G, Vera CS. 2009. Interdecadal variations of the Southern Annular Mode and its impact on South America. Journal of Climate 22: 61426148.
  • Siqueira LSP, Nobre P. 2006. Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature and heat flux simulations in a coupled GCM. Geophysical Research Letters 33: 16.
  • Sitch S, Huntingford C, Gedney N, Levy PE, Lomas M, Piao SL, Betts R, Ciais P, Cox P, Friedlingstein P, Jones CD, Prentice IC, Woodward FI. 2008. Evaluation of the terrestrial carbon cycle, future plant geography and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks using five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Global Change Biology 14: 20152039.
  • Soares W, Marengo J. 2008. Assessments of moisture fluxes east of the Andes in South America in a global warming scenario. International Journal of Climatology Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com), DOI:10.1002/joc.1800.
  • Souza EB, Ambrizzi T. 2006. Modulation of the intraseasonal rainfall over tropical Brazil by the Madden–Julian oscillation. International Journal of Climatology 26:DOI:10.1002/joc.1331.
  • Tanaka HL, Ishizaki N, Nohara N. 2005. Intercomparison of the Intensities and Trends of Hadley, Walker and Monsoon Circulations in the Global Warming Predictions. SOLA 1: 077080.
  • Tebaldi C, Hayhoe K, Arblaster J, Meehl G. 2006. Going to the extremes: An intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events. Climatic Change 79: 185211, DOI:10.1007/s10584-006-9051-4.
  • Vendrasco E, Silva Dias PL, Freitas ED. 2009. A case study of the direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols on precipitation in the Eastern Amazon. Atmospheric Research 94: 409421.
  • Vera CS, Silvestri G, Barros V, Carril A. 2004. Differences in El Niño response over the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Climate 17: 17411753.
  • Vera CS, Baez J, Douglas M, Emanuel C, Marengo JA, Meitin J, Nicolini M, Nogues-Paegle J, Paegle J, Penalba O, Salio P, Saulo C, Silva Dias MAF, Silva Dias PL, Zipser E. 2006a. The South American Low-Level Jet Experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87: 6377.
  • Vera CS, Higgins W, Amador J, Ambrizzi T, Garreaud R, Gochis D, Gutzler D, Lettenmaier D, Marengo JA, Mechoso CR, Nogues-Paegle J, Silva Dias PL, Zhang C. 2006b. Toward a Unified View of the American Monsoon Systems. Journal of Climate 19: 49775000.
  • Vera CS, Silvestri G, Liebmann B, González P. 2006c. Climate change scenarios for seasonal precipitation in South America from IPCC-AR4 models. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L13707, DOI:10.1029/2006GL025759.
  • Vera CS, Silvestri G. 2009. Precipitation interannual variability in South America from the WCRP-CMIP3 Multi-model dataset. Climate Dynamics 32: 10031014.
  • Wang B, Ding Q. 2006. Changes in global monsoon precipitation over the past 56 years. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L06711, DOI:10.1029/2005GL025347.
  • Zeng N, Yoon J, Marengo JA, Subramaniam A, Nobre CA, Mariotti A. 2008. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought. Environ. Res. Lett. 3: 19, DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/3/1/014002.
  • Zhou J, Lau WK-M. 2001. Principal modes of interannual and decadal variability of summer rainfall over South America. International Journal of Climatology 21: 16231644.
  • Zipser EJ, Cecil DJ, Liu C, Nesbitt SW, Yorty DP. 2006. Where are the most intense thunderstorms on earth? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87: 10571071.