On the decoupling of the IODZM from southern Africa Summer rainfall variability
Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society
International Journal of Climatology
Volume 32, Issue 5, pages 727–746, April 2012
How to Cite
Manatsa, D., Reason, C. J. C. and Mukwada, G. (2012), On the decoupling of the IODZM from southern Africa Summer rainfall variability. Int. J. Climatol., 32: 727–746. doi: 10.1002/joc.2306
- Issue online: 10 APR 2012
- Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 JAN 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 17 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Received: 10 JUN 2010
- 2003. Protracted ENSO episodes and their impacts in the Indian Ocean region. Deep Sea Research Part II 50: 2331–2347. , , , .
- 2004. Impact of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature on developing El Niño. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/∼hanna/annaetal_jc2004.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2007. , , , .
- 2001. Subtropical SST dipole events in the southern Indian Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters 28: 327–330. , .
- 2005. Paramount Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the East African Short Rains: A CGCM Study. Journal of Climate 18: 4514–4530. , , , , , , and .
- 2003. An observational study of the relationship between excessively strong short rains in coastal east Africa and Indian Ocean SST. Monthly Weather Review 131: 74–94. , , .
- 2000. Indian Ocean SST and Indian summer rainfall; predictive relationships and their decadal variability. Journal of Climate 13: 2503–2519. , , .
- 2003. Interdecadal variability of the relationship between the Indian Ocean zonal mode and East African coastal rainfall anomalies, Journal of Climate 16: 548–554. , , .
- 1998. On the response of the Southern Hemisphere to ENSO. Proc. 23rd Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, American Meteorological Society: Miami, FL; 3123–326. .
- 1995. Divergent and non-divergent water vapour transport over southern Africa during wet and dry conditions. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 55: 47–59. , .
- 2009. Recurrent daily OLR patterns in the Southern Africa/Southwest Indian Ocean region, implications for South African rainfall and teleconnections Climate Dynamics 32: 575–591, DOI:10.1007/s00382-008-0426-2. , , , , .
- 1982. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press: New York; p. 662. .
- 1999. The importance of the Indian Ocean for GCM based climate forecasts over eastern and southern interior of Southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 19099–19116. , .
- 2007. Decadal changes in 1870–2004 Northern Hemisphere winter sea level pressure variability and its relationship with surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D11103, DOI:10.1029/2006 JD007291. , , , .
- 1988. An investigation in interannual rainfall variability in Africa. Journal of Climate 1: 240–255. .
- 1999. CAMS_OPI: A Global Satellite-Rain Gauge Merged Product for Real-Time Precipitation Monitoring Applications. Journal of Climate 12: 3335–3342. , .
- 1996. Calculating regional climatic time series for temperature and precipitation: Methods and illustrations. International Journal of Climatology 16(4): 361–377. , .
- 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 77: 437–471. , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991, Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 18,567–18,589. , , , , , .
- 2001. Mansoon rainfall variations and teleconnections over south and east Asia International Journal of Climatology 21: 603–616. , .
- 1999. The influence of the decadal scale variability of summer rainfall on the impact of El Niño and La Niña events of South Africa. International Journal of Climatology 19: 59–68. .
- 1999. On the weakening relationship between the Indian Monsoon and ENSO. Science 284: 2156–2159, DOI:10.1126/science. 284.5423.2156. , , .
- 1988. Southern Africa rainfall, the Southern Oscillation and a Southern Hemisphere semi-annual cycle. Journal of Climatology 8: 17–30. .
- 2007. The Superior Influence of the Darwin Sea Level pressure anomalies over ENSO as a simple drought predictor for southern Africa. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-007-0315-3. , , , .
- 2008. The Impact of the positive Indian Ocean Dipole on Zimbabwe Droughts. International Journal of Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.1695. , , .
- 2009. Changing dependence of Zimbabwe rainfall variability on ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI 10.1007/s00704-009 -0114-0. , .
- 2009. Relative impacts of ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode on east SADC rainfall International Journal of Climatology, DOI:0.1002/joc.2086. , , ,
- 2003. Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses. Journal of Climate 16: 4134–4143. .
- 1995. Sea-surface temperature—South Africa rainfall associations, 1910–1989. International Journal of Climatology 15: 119–135. .
- 1997. Climatic variability and change over Southern Africa : a Reflection on underlying processes. Progress in Physical Geography 21: 23–50. , .
- 1990. Drought over Zimbabwe in a regional and global context. International Journal of Climatology 10: 609–625. .
- 2007. A physical basis for the interannual variability of rainfall in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 133: 2065–2084. , .
- 1997. The relationship of El Niño Southern Oscillation to African rainfall. International Journal of Climatology 17: 117–135. , .
- 2000. Comparison of rainfall structures between NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and observed data over tropical Africa. Climate Dynamics 16: 897–915. , , .
- 1996. Version 2.2 of the Global Sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature Data Set., 1993–1994. Climate Research Technical Note 74 (Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research, Meteorological Office, London Road, Bracknell, RG12 2SY). , , , , .
- 2001. Subtropical Indian Ocean SST dipole events and southern African rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 2225–2227. .
- 1999. Relationship between South African Rainfall and SST anomalies in the South West Indian Ocean. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1651–1763. , .
- 2002. ENSO like decadal variability and southern African rainfall. Geohysical Research Letters 29(0,10): 1029/2002GL014663. , .
- 2004. Tropical Cyclone Eline and its unusual penetration and impacts over the southern African mainland. Weather and Forecasting 19: 789–805. . .
- 2005. A model investigation of recent ENSO impacts over southern Africa. Meteorology and Atmosperic Physics 89: 181–205. , .
- 2006. Seasonal to decadal prediction of southern African climate and its links with variability of the Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87: 941–955. , , .
- 2001. 20th century droughts in southern Africa: spatial and temporal variability, teleconnections with oceanic and atmospheric conditions. International Journal of Climatology 21: 873–885. , , , , .
- 1997. Interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with air-sea interaction processes. International Journal of Climatology 17: 235–265. , .
- 1987. Global and regional scale precipitation associated with El Nin˜ o/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review 115: 985–996. , .
- 2005. Intensity and spatial extent of droughts in southern Africa. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L15702, DOI:10.1029/2005GL022436. , .
- 1999. A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401: 360–363. , , , .
- 2003. Possible roles of Indian Ocean dipole mode events on global climate. Climate Research 25: 151–169. , .
- 2009. Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability Reviews of Geophysics, 47: RG1002, DOI:10.1029/2007RG000245. , , .
- 2005. Role of the southern Indian Ocean in the transitions of the monsoon- ENSO system during recent decades. Climate Dynamics 24: 169–195. , , .
- 2004. Water vapour transport associated with tropical-temperate trough systems over southern Africa and the southwest Indian Ocean, International Journal of Climatology 24: 555–568. , , .
- 2000. The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa (2nd edn). Cape Town; pp. 334. , .
- 1999. Tropical-temperate links in southern African and Southwest Indian Ocean satellite-derived daily rainfall, International Journal of Climatology 19: 1601–1616. , .
- 2006. Extreme wet years over southern Africa: Role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D15104, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006724. , .
- 1999. Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature 401: 356–360. , , , .
- WMO, 1996. Climate Change, WMO technical Note No 79. WMO No. 195-TP-100, World Meteorological Organisation: Geneva; p. 53.
- 2003. Impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the East African Short Rains: A CGCM Study CLIVAR Exchanges 27: 43–45. , , , , , , .