High-resolution (space, time) anthropogenic heat emissions: London 1970–2025

Authors

  • Mario Iamarino,

    Corresponding author
    1. Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, via dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
    • Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, via dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy.
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  • Sean Beevers,

    1. Environmental Research Group, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
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  • C. S. B. Grimmond

    1. Environmental Monitoring and Modelling Group, Department of Geography, King's College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK
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Abstract

The anthropogenic heat emissions generated by human activities in London are analysed in detail for 2005–2008 and considered in context of long-term past and future trends (1970–2025). Emissions from buildings, road traffic and human metabolism are finely resolved in space (30 min) and time (200 × 200 m2). Software to compute and visualize the results is provided. The annual mean anthropogenic heat flux for Greater London is 10.9 W m−2 for 2005–2008, with the highest peaks in the central activities zone (CAZ) associated with extensive service industry activities. Towards the outskirts of the city, emissions from the domestic sector and road traffic dominate. Anthropogenic heat is mostly emitted as sensible heat, with a latent heat fraction of 7.3% and a heat-to-wastewater fraction of 12%; the implications related to the use of evaporative cooling towers are briefly addressed. Projections indicate a further increase of heat emissions within the CAZ in the next two decades related to further intensification of activities within this area. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society

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