Climate anomalies in Europe associated with ENSO extremes



Surface pressure, temperature and precipitation anomalies in Europe are composed for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm and cold extremes. During warm event winters, negative pressure departures at western and central European stations are associated with positive temperature and precipitation anomalies; the reverse signals are observed in northern Europe. During cold episodes the field of negative pressure deviations is shifted northward with positive temperature and precipitation anomalies, whereas higher pressure is observed over central Europe. This shift of the anomalies corresponds to a shift in the dominating cyclone track (deduced from weather maps), which may be interpreted as the response of the (sensitive tail end of the) cross-Atlantic storm track on the high-pressure anomalies occurring at times in the northern or central part of the North Atlantic/European sector during warm or cold ENSO winters, respectively.