Recent climate change in the Arabian Peninsula: annual rainfall and temperature analysis of Saudi Arabia for 1978–2009
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
Copyright © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society
International Journal of Climatology
Volume 32, Issue 6, pages 953–966, May 2012
How to Cite
Almazroui, M., Nazrul Islam, M., Athar, H., Jones, P. D. and Rahman, M. A. (2012), Recent climate change in the Arabian Peninsula: annual rainfall and temperature analysis of Saudi Arabia for 1978–2009. Int. J. Climatol., 32: 953–966. doi: 10.1002/joc.3446
- Issue published online: 18 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 1 AUG 2011
- Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at . [http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms]
- 1998. Climatological study of the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. I. Rainfall analysis. Climate Research 9: 213–223. , .
- 2006. The Relationship Between Atmospheric Circulation Patterns and Surface Climatic Elements in Saudi Arabia, PhD thesis, Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia. .
- 2011a. Calibration of TRMM rainfall climatology over Saudi Arabia during 1998–2009. Atmospheric Research 99: 400–414, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.11.006. .
- 2011b. Sensitivity of a regional climate model on the simulation of high intensity rainfall events over the Arabian Peninsula and around Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Theoretical and Applied Climatology 104: 261–276, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-010-0387-3. .
- 2012a. The life cycle of extreme rainfall events over western Saudi Arabia simulated by a regional climate model: case study of November 1996. Atmósfera 25: 23–41. .
- 2012b. Temperature variability over Saudi Arabia during the period 1978–2010 and its association with global climate indices. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Met Env Arid Land Agric Sci. 23(1), DOI: 10.4197/Met.23-1.6. (In press). .
- 1993. Regional variations of monthly rainfall amounts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Earth Sciences 6: 113–133. , .
- 2012b. Temperature variability over Saudi Arabia during the period 1978–2010 and its association with global climate indices. Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Met Env Arid Land Agric Sci 23(1), DOI: 10.4197/Met.23-1.6. .
- 2010. Nearest neighbor analysis of mega-barchanoid dunes, Ar Rub' al Khali, sand sea: the application of geographical indices to the understanding of dune field self-organization, maturity and environmental change. Geomorphology 120: 186–194. .
- 2006. Diagnosis of tropospheric moisture over Saudi Arabia and influences of IOD and ENSO. Monthly Weather Review 134: 598–617. , , , , .
- 2006. Arabian Deserts: Nature, Origin and Evolution. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. .
- 2009. Development of temperature in the Kingdom of Bahrain from 1947 to 2005. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 101: 269–279, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-009-0205-y. , .
- 2000. Recent trends and anomalies in mean seasonal and annual temperatures over Sudan. Journal of Arid Environments 45: 263–288, DOI: 10.1006/jare.2000.0639. , .
- 1982. On the climate of Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 6: 203–214. .
- 1995. Rainfall probability and reliability in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Geographical Society 21: 7–26. .
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate change: the scientific basis. In Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Xiaosu D (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 944.
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Climate Change). 2007. The physical science basis. In Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, p 996.
- 2010. Calibration of TRMM derived rainfall over Nepal during 1998–2007. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal 4: 12–23, DOI: 10.2174/1874282301004010012. , , .
- 2009. Climates of the Arabian Peninsula—past, present, future. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 1: 297–310, DOI: 10.1108/17568690910977500. , .
- 2000. The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. Journal of Applied Meteorology 39: 1965–1982. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2001. Analysis of a 30-year rainfall record (1967–1997) in semi-arid SE Spain for implications on vegetation. Journal of Arid Environments 48: 373–395, DOI: 10.1006/jare.2000.0755. , , , .
- 2010. Influence of choice of time period on global surface temperature trend estimates. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 91: 1485–1491, DOI: 10.1175/2010BAMS3030.1. , , , , .
- 2004. Climate change in arid environments: revisiting the past to understand the future. Progress in Physical Geography 28(4): 502–530. .
- 2005. An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. International Journal of Climatology 25: 693–712, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1181. , .
- 2002. Climate change in Italy indicated by agrometeorological indices over 122 years. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 111: 13–27, DOI: 10.1016/S0168–1923 (02) 00012–6. , , , .
- 1996. Analysis of recent climatic changes in the Arabian Peninsula region. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 53: 245–252. , .
- 2000. Representing twentieth–century space–time climate variability. Part II: development of 1901–1996 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. Journal of Climate 13(13): 2217–2238. , , .
- 1994. Estimation of climatic transition in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) in global warming perspectives. Geo Journal 33(4): 423–432. .
- 2000. Climate change and water resources management in the southern Mediterranean and Middle East countries. The Second World Water Forum, 17–22, March 2000, The Hague. , .
- 2010. Temperature and rainfall variation over Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (1970–2006). International Journal of Climatology 30: 445–449. .
- 2011. Climate change impact and runoff harvesting in arid regions. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. DOI: 10.1007ls12517-011-0354-z. , , , , .
- 2004. Geostatistical study of annual and seasonal mean rainfall patterns in southwest Saudi Arabia. Hydrological Sciences Journal 49(5): 803–817, DOI: 10.1623/hysj.49.5.803.55137. .
- 2006. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd edn. Elsevier Publishers: New York, USA, 627. .
- 1997. Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 78: 2539–2558. , .